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Maritime work song in general

Steve Gardham 26 Mar 20 - 02:30 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 01:51 PM
Lighter 26 Mar 20 - 10:32 AM
Steve Gardham 26 Mar 20 - 09:25 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:07 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:04 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:00 AM
Steve Gardham 25 Mar 20 - 03:37 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Mar 20 - 01:24 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Mar 20 - 01:22 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Mar 20 - 12:50 AM
RTim 24 Mar 20 - 10:52 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Mar 20 - 06:56 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Mar 20 - 06:54 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Mar 20 - 07:28 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 01:06 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 01:02 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 12:41 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 12:37 PM
Steve Gardham 22 Mar 20 - 09:45 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 04:10 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 04:02 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 03:52 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 03:51 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 03:50 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Mar 20 - 07:16 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Mar 20 - 07:50 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Mar 20 - 07:35 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 20 Mar 20 - 07:18 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 20 Mar 20 - 07:10 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 20 Mar 20 - 07:06 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 10:23 PM
Steve Gardham 19 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 06:24 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 05:34 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 05:30 PM
Steve Gardham 19 Mar 20 - 03:50 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:40 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:29 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:20 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM
Joe Offer 17 Mar 20 - 10:13 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 17 Mar 20 - 10:08 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 17 Mar 20 - 10:04 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 17 Mar 20 - 09:54 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 17 Mar 20 - 09:46 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 17 Mar 20 - 09:42 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 16 Mar 20 - 01:26 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 16 Mar 20 - 01:21 AM
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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 02:30 PM

Gibb would be able to put more meat on the bones, but the Stevedores in the Gulf ports were already singing proper chanties i.e., songs with a chorus that were taken into the chanty repertoire) for screwing the cotton, before they came aboard ship if I recall correctly from Gibb's writing.

All of this is well and good and equivalents in other periods are still very interesting but establishing a direct link from any of these to the chanties we know seems to be all supposition.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 01:51 PM

Lighter: Some folks like lumpy gravy... others has to leave it be.

Steve, 1800 years... from 'boatman' to 'hobby horse' and counting:
"Those who hauled or pulled a rope, who raised a weight, or the like, called HELCIARII, used likewise to animate one another with a loud cry, Martial, ibid., hence Nauticus clamor, the cries or shouts of the mariners, Virg. Æn. iii. 128. v. 140. Lucan. ii. 688."

"Sirga llevar barcos a la firga, to draw with a rope, Trahere.
Sirguero, a drawer of a boat with a rope, Tractor.” [Percyvall]

"Bourrelier, qui fait les colliers des cheuaulx, Helciarius. Il vient de Bourre, quòd helciis infarciat tomentum." [Thierry]

In Western labour & naval science history these are the 2020 longshoreman & stevedore brotherhoods. The nave & codicarii were merchant marine. We also have fighting the navies not in the standard narrative... (no lyrics &c.)

Job titles & descriptions follow the work. English sailing is relatively new and most everything was an auxilliary until late coal/early fuel oil. Towing and rowing were #1-2 forms of marine propulsion until fairly recently.

It was what it was.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 10:32 AM

The heart of the issue, Steve.

The fact that throughout history and across the globe people have sung songs while rowing doesn't diminish the other documented fact that nineteenth-century, anglophone crews began routinely to sing what we may call "dedicated" songs for use while heaving and hauling - apparently for the first time in history.

To insist on conflating these things into one homogeneous, reductive category called "sailors' work songs" seems to me to obscure rather than to enlighten the discussion.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 09:25 AM

Okay Phil are there specific references to celeusma being used aboard a vessel for anything to do with ropes, hoisting sails, working a simple capstan or winch, in other words other than rowing?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM

Some early Spanish to end the century. Note our old Caribbean friend gritar (gritador) or griot to some.

“A hao, ho, Heus.

Coro, de coro, a quier, by hart, the turning of the faile, chorus, Memoriter, veli tranfuerfio.

Grita, a crie, Vociferatio.
Gritar, to crie, Vociferari,

Guay, alas, wo, Hei heu.

O. oz, ether, would God, Velaut, utinam, heus

Sirga llevar barcos a la firga, to draw with a rope, Trahere.
Sirguero, a drawer of a boat with a rope, Tractor.”
[1591 - Bibliothecae Hispanicae pars Altera, Percyvall]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:07 AM

Ah well. It proofed okay and then changed from omega to plain old "O" in the post. At least it wasn't four question marks. Yo-ho.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:04 AM

Olde German and the one Greek word I can transcribe:

Hofcha / Heus, Ohe.

Hem… Interiectio irafcentuc. Terent…
Hem, Refpondentis. Terent. Heus heus Syre.s.hem quid eft?

auff Mahuen Excire, Excitare, freq. Exciere.
auffMahnen Hortari, Adhortari, Cohortari, Admonere, oder.
verMahnen Hortari, Cohortari, Adhortari, Admonere,Comonere, Commonefacere, Exhortari.
verMahner Hortator, Hortatrix, Exhortator, Monitor, Admonitor. Celeuftes.
verMahnug Hortatio, Hortamen, Hortamentum, Adhortatio, Admonitio, Exhortatio, Cohortatio.

O Oh, Ohe, Heus, Eho: Prò…. Oataricha, mugilumoua, fale condita.

<Proceleufmaticus, ci,... Pes eft ex quatugr breuibus fyllabis conflans.

Rommet/roff; fommet /Helcium.

Treiber der ruderfnecht / Celeuftes.

Ke…Celeufma hortametum quod remigibus datur: Item, iuffum, mandatum.
Ke ...Celeuftes, iuffor, & qui celeufma canit.”
[1587 - Lexicon Trilingue, Roberti]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:00 AM

Steve: See my - 11 Mar 20 - 06:17 PM about the mix you can expect. This won't ever be a sheet music & lyrics thread. Heia! Viri! &c are exceptional and the celeusma isn't going to change its stripes for me or thee. If the elves have a nicer, friend of the working man title, I'm all for it.


"Chanter, Canere, Cantare, Occinere, Præcinerc, Pfallere. Qui apprend autruy à chanter, Vocis & cantus modulator, Phonafcus, Muficus.

la Chiorme d'une galere ce font touts les Forfaires ou Forfats tirants à la rame Remiges.

Enhorter, Hortari, Adhortari, Cohortari, Exhortari, Vti hortatione, Suadere.
Enhorteur, Suafor, Confuafor, Adhortator, Exhortator.
Enhort ou Enhortement, Hortatio, Adhortatio, Cohortatio, Exhortatio, Suafio.
L'enhortement des mariniers ou autres gens qui s'efforcent defaire quelque befongne, Celeufma celeufmatis.

Efcoute,efcoute Syre, Heus, heus Syre.
Efcoute di moy, Eho dic mihi.
Efcoute, tu fcais bien que,&c. Heus proximus fum egomet mihi.

Hareleurier, Io canes, Euge canes.celeufma venatorium, & hortamentum. B.

Hau, vocandi,ab Heus, inde Haula.

Hé, Vocandi, Heus.

Hola hola, Heus heus.

Hucher, Accerfere, Arceffere, Inclamare, Vocare. Fortè ab Heus, aduerbio vocandi. vt principio dictum fit Heufcher deinde Hufcher, & demum corruptius Hucher. Perionius fic tradit, Si à Vocare dempferis o, fupereft Vcare, inde Vcer, & per ignorantiam originis Hucher.

Ceulx qui tirent vn bateau au col, Helciarii.B.
Osi tirent vn bateau, Helciarii.
Vn collier à cheuaulx, Helcium, helcii.
Bourrelier, qui fait les colliers des cheuaulx, Helciarius. Il vient de Bourre, quòd helciis infarciat tomentum.
Qui tire quelque fardeau auec cordes, Helciarius.

Venez ca, Heus, Eho.

Corner Requefte de fois à autre, Celeufma requifitorium edere.”
[Dictionaire Francoislatin, Thierry, 1564]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 03:37 PM

Hi Phil, whilst I can just about follow what you're trying to do, I do wish you'd stick to your title, particularly the words 'work' and 'song'.
Either that or change the title.

A poor Yorkshire boy!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 01:24 AM

“Celeuftes, Bud. Navigationis moderator, qui remiafigno vocali exhortatur… Hefych. Le comite, enhorteur des rameurs, donneur de courage. The encourager of the rowers: he that calleth on the mariners to hartern them in their bufineffes, and as fome fay, the botefwaine.

Conchyta, Plaut. Qui conchas legit & musculos… Pefcheur de moufles. A muffhell man: a cockleman: an oyfterman: he that gathereth and taketh up fhellfifh.

Contus, … Perche de marinier. A mariners or watermans pole to gage water or fhoove forth a veffell into the deepe.

Helciarius, Mart. qui navim adverfo amne trahit fune ductario. Qui tire vn bateau. An hailer, or he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge alongft the river by a rope: alfo he that draweth up burthens and packes into the fhip. Helciarius etiam que fune molitur onera in navi…

Paufarius, Senecæ, qui remigibus modos dat, cum Celeufte idem, meo quidem indicio, nifi quòd difcrimen videatur effe in accendedis operis, & facienda paufa, hoc eft, fuperfedendo à remigandi munere…. L'advertiffeur des mariniers qu'il faut repofer. He that commandeth the rowers or mariners to ceafe rowing, (as fome fay) the maifters mate.

Proreta, Plauto, qui in prora a tutelæ navis præfidet… Le gouverneur de la proue. The ruler of the forefhip or Decke.

Symphoniacus, qui in claffe canit bellicum. Trompette és navires de guerre. A trumpeter in fhips of warre.”
[The Nomenclator, Higins, 1585]

;)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 01:22 AM

Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Battle of Lepanto order of battle

"...in which the Holy League deployed 6 galleasses and 206 galleys, while the Ottoman forces numbered 216 galleys and 56 galliots."

“Over the following decades, the increasing importance of the galleon and the line of battle tactic would displace the galley as the major warship of its era, marking the beginning of the "Age of Sail".” [wikis]


They Shout,
*A fhoutng or crie of fhipmen, Celeufma, Celeufina, vel Celeuma, celeúmatis, II. g. Mart.”
[Triple Dictionary in Englifh Latin & French, 1573]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 12:50 AM

Rtim: fyi - One (1) semester of Latin when Pontius was still a co-Proreta.

It's the 2400 year history of the 'proto-chanty' in literary references. I find the terms wild, primitive, aboriginal, &c… unhelpful. If you're here for the shanties, you're early.


“Celeúfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeûma, celeúmatis.n.gé. Mart. Grido uniforme de marinari à fare qualche lor opera.

Celeúftes, celúftæ, m.g.Bud. Chi conforata i marinai al navicare.
[Dictionariolum Latinum ad Puerorum, 1558]


“Celeúfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeúma, celeúmatis, neut. gen. Mart. L’enhortement des mariniers ou autres ges qui s’efforcent defaire quel que befongne.

Celeúftes, celeúftæ, m.gen. Bud. Tel enhorteur, & donneur neur de courage.

Contus, conti, m.g. Vne lone gue perche de bois, Vne perche a mariniers, dequoy ils fondent le fond de l’eaue, & de quoy ils conduifent vne naf felle quand il y apeu d'eau.
[Dictionarium Latino gallicum, 1561]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 10:52 PM

I am increasingly bemused by this thread.....I am not sure whose benefit it is for? It has Nothing to do with Maritime music for the ordinary person, and just seems to be a vehicle to prove that the main correspondent is cleverer than anyone else..!!

Tim Radford (a poor old 'ampshire boy....)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 06:56 PM

“Si tu proreta ifti nauies, ego gubernator ero.Vfus eft Vlpíanus hoc verbo ín título de publícanís, grece... &... dícítur. Remíges funt quífcalmís herent,íd eft labro nauís,vbí remí adnexi funt,a quo interfcalmia fpacia inter remiges dicta funt. Celeuftes eft q remiges hortatur,quafi nauigationís moderator quía Plauto latíne hortator appellatur,q, ea hortamenta faciat que verbo greco celeufmata dicutur etiam a latínís.Hôc vero celeufma quod & celeuma dicitur in nauibus claffiariis affa voce interdú, interdi tibia canebatur,ita vt remiges pro modulorum atqu haremonie ratione vel concítarétur vel ínhiberent remos. Pedíanus auctor eft caní remígíbus celeuma per Symphoníacos feruos folítu olím effe.& per affam vocem íd eft ore prolatam,& (vt ín argo nauí) ínterdu per cítharam. Cícero ín Díuínatíone.Ab hac mulíere prefectus Antoníí quídam fymphoníacos feruos abducebat per íníuríam,quíbus fe ín claffe vtí velle dícebat. Quem locum Pedíanus exponens poffumus (ínquít) íntellígere ad hoc fymphoníacos feruos capí folere, vt ínclaffeclaffícum pugnantíbus canant, vnde ípfi tubæ claffs claffícum nomen eft pofítum. Híeremíæ vígefímoquínto cap.Celeuma quafí, calcantíum concínetur aduerfus omnes habítatores terre. Quo verbo allegorí cos Propheta figníficauít hortamentum mutuum populos contrucídantíum, quod per celeuma vuas calcantíum quafí fanguínem exprimentíu intellígítur, quod verbum Lyranus interpres non percepít.Síc ením folent celeuma facere Helcíaríi. & naute & helcíaríí, vd eft quí onera funíbus molvuntur, vel quí naues deducunt,fubducuntve ad offícíaínuícem adhortantes,vt vno conníxu paríter confpírantes,admolírí vníuerfís víríbus poffvnt quod fíngulvs nequeunt,vt fíerí ínterím vídernus.Et capí. vígefímooctauo. Nequaq calcator vuæ folítu celeuma cantabít.Sunt etíam ín nauí quí vectores dicuntur,qui ob hoc tantum ín nauí funt vt vehátur,quo modo hocín título accípíutur.quí fi mílítes funt Epíbaté dícuntur verbo greco,fed latínís vfítato,latíne clafííaríí vocantur. Nauícularíí nauíú funt domíní,qui Græce nauclerí dícuntur, merítorías naues habentes, Patronos appellamus.Tacitus.Atq índe decurfu ín líttora vím ín merca tores aut ín nauícularíos audebant.Vnde nauícularíam facere.Cícero ín Ver rem Actíone vltíma. Quíd eos quí hoc audíebant arbítrabare ínanem te nauem effe íllam in Italíam deducturum nauícularíam te cum Romam veníffes effe facturum? Hí & nauículatores ab eodem dícuntur ín oratíone prolege Manílía.Vegetíus tamen líb.quarto, Nauícularíos eos effe dícít quí ín claffe fingulís nauíbus prefunt,quos Græcí nauarchos vocant.Cæterum verba que dam Græca híc defunt,quæ reftítuv nífv ab eo quí Florentínas Pandectas adíe rít non poffunt.
[Annotatio Nes Gvlielmi Bvdaei Parisiensis, 1521]

Oy.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 06:54 PM

Celetes pe.qp. Grece… exhortor: vocatur equi q ad curfum foli adhíbee.fiuee bigis vel quadrigis etia nauigia ut his teporib fierá folet. Na q bigis quadrígifue ve adhibèbatur ad curfium defultorii dicebat.Ply. Antiqui celetas dicebat I facris. Postea vero & q bigis vel o drigisui ciffent latie dicut defultorii q ex his facile defiliat.

Celer ide eft qd velox.a quo celerrim & celeriffi mus fiut fuperlatiua fcam. Prif. Celero.as.pe.cor.celeriter aliquid facio. A quo Accelero copofitu.

Celeufma clamor nautarii & alioru cum vno aliquid iubente oes vniformiter refpodent quafi fibi inuice iubetes.Hie.apd Hieremia:Celeufma quafi calcatiu cocinetur aduerfus oes habitatores terre.

Helciarius qui fune canabino naue trahit aduer fus vndas:vt eft apud. Mar. De helcio fpar teo dimoto nexu machinæ liberatu applicat pfepio.Eft paulo poft. Helciotande abfolutus refectuique fecure redditus.

Heu interiectio doletis iungit acto pnoís. Ter. Heu me miferu. Na per exprobationé iu git efi no mine.Ver. Heu ftripe inuitas. Et cu nto.Ide. Heu pietas heu prifca fides. Interdu geminat & nulli cafuiferuit.Ver.Heu heu qd volui. Aliqii etia dr Eheu. Afpiratur ficut & hei eade ratione.

Heus adverbiu vocatis. [typical]

O! [typical]

Proceleumaticus pes ex quattuor fyllabis brevibus costans:dictus quafi pmitus iuffus:eo op in facris minetue prius eius pedis verfus pronuciari tubebantur…

Remiges nautici q remos agut & remigadi minifterio mancipati fut:hui ntus fingularis eft remex remigis. Curt.remex militis officia turbabat.

Tranfuador .&Tranfuado.as.pe.cor.per vadu traiicio.Hiero.ad.Helio. Per tranflatione: Sed quo niam fcopulofis locis enauigauit oratio & inter canas fpumeis fluctibus cautes fragilis in altu cimba proceffit.expandenda vela funt ventis & quæftionumicrupulis tranfuadatis letantiu more nautarii epilogi celeuma cantandu eft.”
[Dictionarium ex optimis authoribus, Calepini, 1509]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Mar 20 - 07:28 AM

These next few should have gone up before the Complaynt.

Remus inftrumentume eft, quo naues aguntur. Verg. Quam deinde Cloanthus Confequitur melior remis. Inde remos inflectere. Cic. Ne...hoc loco expectandum eft, dum de remo inflexo refpondeam. Et Remos detergere,pro collidere,vel confringere, tunc detergere translatu eft.

Remigare eft naue remis propellere. Cic. Non enim fuftinet remos, fed alio modo remigant. Idem. Vtru agitur mauisiftatimúe nos uela faceré aut. quaftiè portu egredientes paululum remigares.

Remex dicitur,qui remis agit, uel qui remigandi minifterio mancipatus eft, uel qui fcalmo hæret,id eft labro nauis,ubi remi adnexi funt. Cic. Arbitrabar fuftineri remos, cum inhiberi effent remiges iußi.

Remigatio eft incitatio nauis à remige propulfæ. Vel eft remigis contentio,atq impetus in nauem propellendam. Cic. Inhibitio remigum motum habet,... uehementiorem quidem remigationis nauem conuertentis ad puppim.

Remigium eft ipfaremoru agitatio, & remigatio,uel eft remorum ordo,aut remigu multitudo.Verg. Remigium fupplet, focios fimul inftruit armis.

Scalmus eft lignum teres,cui naute remos loco quodam alligant ad nauigandum,ut firmius nauigent. Vel eft labru nauis,ubi remi adnexi funt, à quo interfcalmia fpatia iuter remiges dicta funt. Cic. Hæc ego confcendens è Popeiano tribui actua riolis decem fcalmorum.

Celeuftes dicitur, qui remiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator, qui à Plauto latinè hortatur ????llatur quod ea hortamenta faciat, quæ uerbo græco celeufmata dicuntur etiam à latinis. Hoc uero celeufmata quod & ??l?uma dicitur, in nauibus... aff a uoce,ore prolatainterdum, iterdum, interdu tibia canebatur. Inde & Symphoniaci ferui. Cic in Ver Act. I. Celeuma item,ut nautæ faciunt Helciarii, id eft, qui onera funibus moliuntur:uel qui naues deducut, fubducuntúe, ad officia inuicem fefe adhortantes,ut uno connixu pariter confpirantes, admoliri uniuerfis uiribus poffint,quod fingulis nequeunt.

Heus* eft vocatis,uel reuocantis,uel interdum etiam dolentis. Cic. Sed heus tu , quid agis? Terent. Omnium rerum heus uicißitudo eft.”
[Commentarium Latinæ Linguæ, Vol.II, Doleti, 1539]

*Typical too many places for: Heu, eheu, eho, ehodum, hei, hoi, hem, hui, ah, aha, ha &c &c. See original text.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:06 PM

John Calvin (1509–1564)

“30 Et tu prphetabis ad eos, vel, contra eos, omnia verba hæc:& dices illis. Iehouah ab excelfo rugiet, & ex habitaculo fanctitatis fuæ edet vocem fuam: rugiendo rugiet fuper habitaculum fuum celeufma, clamorem potius generaliter, quafi prementium torcular refpondebit fuper cunctos incolas terræ.

Nomen ???? vertunt Celeuma, vel celeufma:alis magis placet vertere Lugubrem cantionem. fed fæpius occurrit quum agitur de vindemiis. Celeufma autem nauticum eft, quemadmodum fcitur. etymologia quidem eft generalis, & [keleustes] eft hortari:& celeusma nihil eft aliud quàm exhortatio. Scd quoniam vox illa tantùm de nautis reperitur,ideó mihi magis pla cuit ponere clamoris nomen.”
[Johannis Calvini Operum Omnium Theologica, Calvin, 1558]


“25:30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation; he shall mightily roar upon his habitation; he shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.

The word ???? eidad, is rendered celeusma, a shout; but some render it a mournful singing; and it often occurs when the vintage is spoken of. Celeusma, as it is well known, is the shout of sailors. Its etymology is indeed general in its meaning; for keleustes is to exhort, to encourage ; and then the noun is exhortation. But as this word is only used as to sailors, I prefer to adopt the word sound, or a loud noise.”
[Commentary on the Prophet Jeremiah, Vol.III, The Tenth Annual Report of the Calvin Society for the year 1852]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:02 PM

In case y'all missed it, you now have yet another maritime work song function that falls outside the scope of the shanty. Command & control (conn.)

“...one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved:...” [Fabri]

“CUNA, (p. 63.) a sea term; quas. cun a’. To cun a vessel, is, to give directions to the steersman; for which purpose, a person is employed, who chaunts, from time to time, his directions, in a high tone of voice.” [Leyden]

“SONG. The call of soundings by the leadsman in the channels....” [Smyth]

Lyr Add: Mark Twain (Harry Belafonte)
(^Not to be taken seriously.)

See image of Qar's tomb [links above.]
The proreta on the prow of Qar's funerary barge is holding a long pole, Gr. kontus. If the water is too deep for the pole to reach bottom he measures with the lead line but cannot help steer &c.

Also:
Quant pole
contour line
Conn (nautical)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 12:41 PM

Lyrics as above:

"…Rowing songs are found, from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, in which the word 'rumblelow' frequenty appears—the word also appears in songs sung by water processions which used to be held by the Lord Mayor of London. This has been pointed out by L.G. Carr Laughton and Miss L.A. Smith and others, and D'Israeli in his book Curiosities of Literature writes that, 'our sailors at Newcastle in heaving their anchors (still) have their “heave and ho, rumbelow”', which brings the word down to comparitively recent times. My friend Mr. G. Legman has pointed out that in Skelton's sixteenth-century Bowge at Court there is a song “Heve and how, rombelow, row the bote, Norman, rowe!'

...2. The verses are taken from the Introduction to Capt. W.B.Whalls Sea Songs and Shanties, Brown, Son & Ferguson, Glasgow, 1927”
[Hugill, foreword]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 12:37 PM

The Leyden Glossary (1801)
“In the sea scene which immediately succeeds, the minuteness of description employed by the author, is entirely averse to every principle of taste in composition, except in a work professedly scientific; But from this very circumstance, it derives an additional value, as it has preserved many sea cheers which have long fallen into desuetude; and many sea terms by which the different parts of a ship, and the different operations and manœuvres of navigation, were formerly denominated. These cheers and terms are chiefly of Norman and Flemish origin, and, with many others of a similar kind, were preserved to a late period, by that singular race of men, the fishers of the eastern coast of Scotland, many of whom have hardly, at this day, abandoned the peculiar habits and phraseology by which they were long distinguished from the pastoral and agricultural inhabitants of the interior parts of the country.

BOULENE, (p. 62.); Fr. boule; the semicircular part of the sail which is presented to the wind.

BOULENA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer, signifying, hale up the bowlings.

CAUPUNA, (p. 62.) a sailor's cheer in heaving the anchor. The form is contracted; but the radical term is probably coup, to overturn.

CUNA, (p. 63.) a sea term; quas. cun a’. To cun a vessel, is, to give directions to the steersman; for which purpose, a person is employed, who chaunts, from time to time, his directions, in a high tone of voice.

HAIL, v. (p. 62.) to haul, or hale. Fr. haller. B. halen.

HEISAU, (p. 63.) a sea cheer, contracted of heeze all; heeze, heis, or heys, to lift. A.S. heahsian. Fr. hisser. B. hissen. Hence the popular word heezy, a rouzing, a scolding, or fight. Thus, in the ballad of Scornfu Nancy—
        My gutcher left a good braid sword,
                Tho' it be auld and rusty;
        Yet ye may take it on my word,
                It is baith stout and trusty;
        And if I can but get it drawn,
                Which will be right uneasy,
        I shall lay baith my lugs in pawn,
                That he shall get a heezy.
                        Ritson's Scotish Songs
, vol. i. p.183.
By a similar analogy, stour, dust, is used metaphorically to signify a fight.

HOLABAR, (p. 63.) a sea cheer, probably a direction to employ the bar of the capstan; quas. holla! Bar!

Hou, (p. 59, 61.) hollow; the how of a ship; the hollow part, or hold; also a sea cheer, halla! (p. 62.)
        With hypocritis, ay slyding as the sand,
        As humloik, how of wit, and vertew thin.
                Adhortatioun prefixed to Lyndsay's Warkis,
                        Edin
. 1592.

PULPEA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer; quas. pull pull a’.

SARABOSSA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer. Ser the bus a'; i.e. serve the stock.

VEYRA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer; quas. veer a’.

VORSA, (p. 63.) a sea cheer; quas. force a'.”
[The Complaynt of Scotland, Leyden, 1548, (1801)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 09:45 AM

bireme, trireme, quadreme? quinquereme, of Ninevah. Any hexaremes?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 04:10 AM

Posting the rowing & galley bits here:

Lymphad

“Neither do the ancient vessels of the Northern nations appear to have been of a contemptible size. Before the invention of cannon, the most serviceable and commodious war vessels, especially for piratical expeditions, were a species of long barges, which admitted the application of numerous oars, hence termed "wormfooted" by Lycophron….

...Of this kind are some of the most celebrated ancient vessels; as, the Dragon of Harold Harfagre, and the Long Serpent of Olave Tryggueson, which carried thirty banks of oars, very large and high, with a gilded serpent on the prow. These long vessels were, by the Saxons, denominated Keeles. In the eleventh century, many of these vessels were capable of containing 120 men. Of galleys, two kinds were employed, the one of which was only rowed with oars; the other, frequently denominated the galeasse, combined the effect of both oar and sail. Thus, in the romance of Richard Cœur de Lion, ap. Strutt,

Were the maryners glad or wrothe,
He made them seyle and rowe bothe;
That the galley gede so swyfte,
So doth the fowle by the lyfte.


Some of the latter kind had triple banks of oars raised over each other; and, according to Mat. Paris, were capable of containing 60 men in iron armour, besides the sailors who managed the vessel, and 104 rowers. Gallyettis were a small species of gallies. Balengers were small sailing vessels. Carikes, or Hulkes, were large sailing vessels, the largest of which seem to have been denominated Buccas.

...The vessel described in the Complaynt, is a galeasse. This species was much broader, as well as longer, than the galley, and was navigated both by sails and oars. Besides guns on each side of the deck, interspersed between the banks of oars, they had both artillery and small arms planted on the forecastle and stern.”
[Complaynt of Scotland, Leyden, 1801]


Conchy note: Many parallels to Gargantua and Pantagruel, and a character named Celeusma.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 04:02 AM

Here's another of the so-called 'proto-shanty.'

wiki: The Complaynt of Scotland (1549)

Threads:
Lyr Add: Sea Shanties from 'The Complaynt' (1549)
Tune Req: Seeking a 1600s Sea Shanty
RE: The origin of Sea Chanteys


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:52 AM

Missed one:

"Celeûfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeûfma, celeúmatis, n.g. L'ehortemene des mariniers ou autres gés qui fefforcét defaire quelque befongne.

Celeúftés, celeúftæ. m.g.Tel enhorteur, & donneur de courage.
[Dictionariolum Puerorum In Hoc Nudae Tan, 1545]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:51 AM

“Celeufina, (keleusma) clamor nautarum & aliorum, cum uno
aliquid iubente omnes uniformiter refpondent, quafifibiina uicem iubentes.

Celeuftes, cclcuftæ, mafe. gen. quiremiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator: qui a Plauto Latinè hortator appellatur, quòd ea hortamenta faciat, quæ uerbo Graeco celeufamata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Budæus.

Hei, oi interiectio ingemifcentis, datiuo iúgitur pronominis. ut Hei mihi, (oi uoi) qualis erat. Cicero: Hei mihi, non pofa. fum hoc fine lachrimis commemorare. Afpiratur natura, quodis animi affectus afpiratione melius declaretur.

Helciarii, qui in nauionera funibus moliutur, uel qui naues de ducunt. fubducui ue ad officia inuicê adhortantes, ut uno co nixu pariter cofpirantes, admoliri uniuerfis uiribus poffint, quodfingulis nequeut, ut fieri interim uidemus. Hæc Bud. in priorib. Annot. in Pandect. Martial.lib.i. Qué nec rumspere nauticum celeuma, Nec clamor valet helciariorum.

O (Too long to translate, It means O.)

Paufarius,… à Seneca uocatur, qui remigibus modos dat, & remigandi officiú quadam quafi paufa moderatur.

Proceleufmaticus,... per ex quatuor fyllabis breuibus conftans. Dictus quafi primitus iuffus, eo quòd in facris Mineruæ prius eius pedis uerfus pronunciari iubebantur….”
[Dictionarivm Latinae Lingvae, 1540]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:50 AM

1500AD The word “sailor” isn't part of the merchant marine yet.

Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468)

The standard “Age of Heroic Commerce” is c.1600 to 1900 [Brown], however...

Portuguese India (1505)

“The styles of sea songs were shaped by the shipping routes that formed during the Age of Heroic Commerce, connecting Western Europe, the Americas, the West Indies, and Africa. Since ports of call were social hubs and trading centers for material goods, cultural philosophies, and traditional music, these sites served as meeting grounds for “white men’s songs and shanties and Negro songs and work-songs” where sailors would leave “after being hammered into shanties by the Negroes, and Negro work-songs from ashore would be taken by white sailors and added to their repertoire for halyard and capstan.” [Reidler]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:16 PM

Getting a bit ahead of the dictionaries but, see the linked thread above:

Mrrzy: Ho, hisse! is French for Pull! or whatever you say in English when hoisting in unison...

At Howe! Hissa!'s spot on the maritime work song timeline that depends a lot on the House of Plantagenet being English or French.

wiki.fr: Oh hisse

L.Heu - The queen of the non-lexical vocable antiphons.

Note: The “H” is silent, ie: Hiberia - Iberian. O! (ho, ha, heo, hoe, hoy, jo, o, oh, yeo, yo, yoa.)

Ergo: O! Isse!
Also:
O! Cazza
O! Halle
O! Issa
O! Saglia
O! Saille
O! Ride
ad celeusma infinitum (and beyond!)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:50 AM

Another 15th century 'heu-heia' straggler:

“Celeuma clamor nautarum fiue carmen fup mortuos vel fuperlacum.

Celeus rex eleufinæ ciuitatis or triptolemi qrufti ci opis instrumenta monftraffe di doctus cerere.

Hehu interiectio dolentis diffyllabum:utrunque oducit.
?eia age uox exhortantis aduerbium diffyllabú primam producit.
Heu & heus interiectiones hiscribendæ funr. (Note: typical five places)

O Littera diuerfas partes orationis efficit.?am interdú onteriectio e doletis:ut o deus I quanta miferia fumus:Interdum admirantis:ut orem admirabilem. Iterdú optantis aduerbiu:ut O mi hi pteriti referantur cælituf anni.exhortantis quoq ut o fugite.

Proceleumaticus pes dictus... fit ad celeuma canentium aptus.
Proccleumaticus conftat ex quattuor breuibus:ut canicula.”
[Papias Vocabvlista, 1496]

Conchy note: The old text & typsetting are a challenge. The transciption errors are all mine.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:35 AM

Hark, now hear the sailors cry,
Smell the sea, and feel the sky,
Let your soul & spirit fly,
into the mystic.
[Morrison]

“Wherefore, he told us it was meet and right that we should give thanks to our Redeemer, and sing a hymn of gladness with our loudest voice. So two pilgrims who were priests and monks, and who had good voices, went along the rowing-benches as far as the mast, to the place where sea Mass is wont to be read, and there in union they began to sing with a loud voice the hymn of Ambrose and Augustine,(Te Deum laudamus) which was taken up by all the other clergy present as it is sung in church, each man singing it according to the notation of his own choir at home. I have never heard so sweet and joyous a song, for there were many voices, and their various dissonance made as it were sweet music and harmony; for all alike sang the same words, but the notes were different and yet sweetly harmonized together, and it was a joyous thing to hear so many priests singing the same song together out of the gladness of their hearts. There were many Latin priests, Sclavonians, Italians, Lombards, Gauls, Franks, Germans, Englishmen, Irishmen, Hungarians, Scots, Dacians, Bohemians, and Spaniards, and many there were who spoke the same tongue, but came from different dioceses, and belonged to different religious orders. All these sang the glorious Te Deum, in which even the laity, pilgrims, and the crew of the galley alike joined in, shouting aloud for joy at our good fortune. Our trumpeters blew their trumpets loudly, and sounded their shawms, and one Bogadellus, a jongleur, played upon a drum and sackbut, while others blew flutes and bagpipes. Meanwhile some bowed their faces to the deck and prayed, looking toward the Holy Land; others wept for joy while they sang, and so all sang a new song before the throne of God, and the earth and sea rang with their voices. It seemed to us that while we sung thus our galley bounded beneath us and sailed faster, ploughing the waves more freely, that the wind filled the sail fuller, and the water, stirred by the wind, sent us along more swiftly.”
[Fabri, ibid]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:18 PM

Just to end the century on a lighter note, as they down South La Nave de Los Locos:

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521)

Celeusma
Ne tibi collidant ventus & vnda ratem
Vortice precipitem causis ne te impetus vllus
Siue procella vorax, obruat inde vale.”
[Stultifera Navis, Brant, 1494]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:10 PM

Felix Fabri   (1441-1502)

A long one but this is just a fraction of it. Great read for the galley buff. Brackets added for clarity:

“At night they know all the hours by looking at the stars. Beside the mast they have one compass, and another in the uppermost chamber of the castle, and a lamp always burns beside it at night ; nor do they ever turn their eyes away from it when sailing at night, but one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved: nor does the steersman dare to move the tiller any whither save by the orders of him who looks after the compass, wherein he sees whether the ship be going straight or crookedly, or sideways. See more about this subject hereafter...

He [the Cometa or Baron ie: boatswain] carries hanging round his neck a silver whistle, with which he gives the signal for what nautical labours are to be performed; and at whatever time of the day or night that whistle is heard, straightway all men run making a whistling noise in answer….

Under these [companii] again there are others who are called mariners, who sing when work is going on, because work at sea is very heavy, and is only carried on by a concert between one who sings out orders and the labourers who sing in response. So these men stand by those who are at work, and sing to them, encourage them, and threaten to spur them on with blows. Great weights are dragged about by their means. They are generally old and respectable men. Lowest of all are the galleyslaves of the first and second class, whom in Latin we call reiniges, or rowers, who sit on the cross-benches to work at the oars. There are a great many of them, and they all are big men; but their labours are only fit for asses, and they are urged to perform them by shouts, blows & curses….

As a rule they are Macedonians, and men from Albania, Achaia, Illyria and Sclavonia; and sometimes there are among them Turks and Saracens, who, however, conceal their religion.

[Passengers]
Some sing songs, or pass their time with lutes, flutes, bagpipes, clavichords, zithers and other musical instruments….

For when the wind is quite fair, and not too strong, there is hardly any motion which those who are in the cabin can feel, because the ship runs along quietly, without faltering, and both the pilgrims below and the galley-slaves on deck sleep quietly, and all is still, save only he who watches the compass and he who holds the handle of the rudder, for these by way of returning thanks for our happy voyage and good luck continually greet the breeze, praise God, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, one answering the other, and are never silent as long as the wind is fair. Anyone on board who hears this chant of theirs would fall asleep, even though otherwise he could not sleep, just as restless crying children are lulled to rest by their mother's crooning song, when if all was still they would cry, and they go to sleep more because the song assures them of their mother's presence than because of its sweetness. Even so the pilgrims are more quiet because by this song they understand that the ship is sailing straight forward, and that all is well, than on account of the song itself; for they call out even as the watchmen of the city of Ulm do when they cry the hours of the night, which cry hinders no one from sleeping, but sends many restless folk to sleep….

It seemed to us that while we sung thus our galley bounded beneath us and sailed faster, ploughing the waves more freely, that the wind filled the sail fuller, and the water, stirred by the wind, sent us along more swiftly.”
[The Book of the Wanderings of Br. Felix Fabri, Vol. I, Stewart trans, 1896]
[Also: Hugill, foreword]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:06 PM

11 October 1492

“All hands were summoned as usual, and after they had said their evening prayers and sung the Salve Regina which all seamen are accustomed to say and sing in their own fashion...”
[Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Morison, 1942]

Conchy note: Now this one I do have some serious doubts about, both the task, if any, and the sources.
(See above)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 10:23 PM

To include but not limited to:
RE: What does 'Hal an Tow' mean?
Lyr Req: Hal n Toe? / Hal an Tow
Lyr/Tune Add: Helston Hal an Tow
Lyr Req: alt. verses to Hal An Tow
Hal n Tow on you tube

It's a good'n.

PS: I think we'll catch all of Richard the Lion-Hearted quotes without a dedicated post but there's a lot to process here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM

I'm sure you must be aware of the modern survival in the Helston Furry May Carol, 'Hal-an-tow, Jolly Rumbelow'


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 06:24 PM

Promptorium parvulorum (c.1440)

“CRYE. Clamor, vociferacio.

CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe (halowe, P.)1 Celeuma, C. F.
1“Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, ut heuylaw romylawe.” ORTUS. See hereafter HALOW, schypmannys crye.

HALOW, schypmannys crye.5 Celeuma, C. F.
5“Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, vel heuylaw romylawe (ut heue and howe, rombylow,” edit. 1518.) ORTUS. In the MS. of the Medulla in the Editor’s possession, “heualow, rummylow.’’ See Ritson’s Dissert. on Anc. Songs, p. li.
        “ They rowede hard, and sungge ther too,
        Withheuelow and rumbeloo.” Rich. C. de Lion, 2521.
        “ Your mariners shall synge arowe,
        Hey how and rumbylowe.” Squyre of lowe degree.

It occurs likewise in Skelton’s Bowge of Court; Cocke Lorelle’s bote, &c. This cry appears not to have been exclusively nautical, for it forms the burden of a ballad on the Battle of Bannocksburn, 1314, the alternate stanzas of which, as given in Caxton’s Chron. terminate thus, “ with heuelogh—with rombilogh;’’ or, as in Fabyan, “with heue alowe—with rumbylow.” A cor et à cry, by might and maine,with heaue and hoe.” COTG. Hence seems to be derived the surname of Stephen Rummelowe, Constable of Nottingham Castle, 45 Edw. III. mentioned in Issue Roll of Exch. 1369. Compare CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe.

HOLWYN', or cryyn’ as schypmen (halowen with cry, P.) Celeumo.

HOWTYN’, or cryyn as shepmenn (howten, K.P. howen, J.W.)2 Celeumo, CATH.
2 HOWCYN, MS. See the note on HALOW, schypmannys crye.

Plumbe, of schypmen. Bolidis, vel bolis, C.F.

SCHETE. Lintheamen, lintheum, C. F.

Schypmannys stone. Calamita, C. F.”
[Promptorium parvulorum sive Clericorum, Way, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 05:34 PM

The "Compostella" stuff is here: Lyr Add: Howe! Hissa! (Shanty)

Also found under Pilgrim's Journey & other titles.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 05:30 PM

Steve: It's the saints & scholars era of the celeusma. From the Greeks until the steam age, the only decrease in rowing song will be the size of the chorus. The two will cross paths at T.W. Higginson's oarsmen. There's a capstan or anchor vesper coming up as well. Longus' bunch chanting an alala to the 'Rhodian winds' isn't really a stretch.

It's certainly praise song. How did you divine your way to “totally” though? A cheer is a cheer is a cheer...

It'll get weirder at Reidler's Wagner (Heia! Yo-jo!) & Pirates of the Caribbean.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 03:50 PM

Hi, Phil
I don't like interrupting your excellent research but I think someone should point out that your subject 'Maritime work song in general' appears to have very tentative links to what you are posting.

The idea behind all of these 'work songs' is that the singing or chanting is an aid to the actual work. 'I acknowledge your 'might be' but all I see here is that the mariners were actually singing for other reasons than assisting their work. Seemingly totally religious reasons in this case.

The use of singing/chanting whilst rowing is well documented in many cultures.

Keep up the good work anyway.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:40 AM

Jean de Joinville (1224-1317)
Erasmus (1466-1536)

“Peregrinatorium Religiosum – Manners and Customs on Shipboard – When the Priests and Clerks embarked, the Captain made them mount to the castle (round-top) of the ship, and chaunt psalms in praise of God, that he might be pleased to send them a prosperous voyage. They all with a loud voice sang the beautiful hymn of Veni Creator, from the beginning to the end, and while they were singing, the mariners set their sails in the name of God," [singing "Salve Regina,"] which was the Celeusma of the Middle Age. A Priest having said, that God and his mother would deliver them from all danger if processions were made three times on a Saturday, a procession round the mast was accordingly begun on that day.”
[British monachism, Fosbroke, 1817, p.441]


Conchy note: I'm having trouble getting at the Latin originals but... this is the first specific/exclusive mention of whatever a standard model heaving or hauling shanty might be. Compare/contrast the tone of the verbiage to Hugill on the Compostella 'peregrinatorium religiosum' of the same century (to follow.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:29 AM

Salve Regina (c.1100)
Lyr Req: Salve Regina

“It was set down in its current form at the Abbey of Cluny in the 12th century, where it was used as a processional hymn on Marian feasts. The Cistercians chanted the Salve Regina daily from 1218. It was popular at medieval universities as evening song, and according to Fr. Juniper Carol, it came to be part of the ritual for the blessing of a ship. While the anthem figured largely in liturgical and in general popular Catholic devotion, it was especially dear to sailors.” [wiki]

Conchy note: There may be a measure of Adm. Columbus circular referencing re: "dear to sailors" connection. Still checking.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:20 AM

The 'Dark' Ages are reflected in the sources, or lack thereof, for now.

c.900 – The Icelanders/Danes/Norwegians colonized south-western Greenland. The West's maritime ecomony stretches from the American mainland to Asia Minor.

c.1000 The beginning of the age of sail, but not the end of the age of the oar & yoke:
Galley
Cog (ship)

Were the maryners glad or wrothe,
He made them seyle and rowe bothe;
That the galley gede so swyfte,
So doth the fowle by the lyfte.

[Richard Coer de Lyon (c.1300AD)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM

“Rowing oars have been used since the early Neolithic period. Wooden oars, with canoe-shaped pottery, dating from 5000–4500 BC have been discovered in a Hemudu culture site at Yuyao, Zhejiang, in modern China. In 1999, an oar measuring 63.4 cm (2 ft) in length, dating from 4000 BC, was unearthed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.” [Rowing wiki]

Man'yoshu (c.750AD)
"492 Hearing the song of a boatman rowing up the river, on the second day. [xix: 4150]

In my morning bed I listen–
        Afar on Imizu's stream
Sings a boatman,
Plying his morning oars.”

The mansion of Yakamochi, Governor of Etchi, probably stood on the hill near the river of Imizu.


749–51 Referring to various things.[xv: 3627-0]

...As daylight came and the flood-tide reached us,
Cranes called flying to the reedy coast;
To leave the shore with morning calm,
Both our boatmen and rowers,
Laboured with loud cheers ;
And like the grebes we pushed our way
To see the dim, far isle of 'Home.'”
[The Man'yoshu, Yakamochi, Gakujutsu Shinkokai ed., 1965]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:13 PM

Phil, this is great stuff. Can you get in touch with me?
joe@mudcat.org


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:08 PM

“This active trade was maintained by well-organized ports on sea and river, with large fleets to serve them, and by a fine road network. From earliest times merchants and craftsmen organized themselves into corporations not unlike medieval guilds, and a the state came more and more to concern itself with commerce these became important features in an increasingly regimented society. In sea-ports like Narbonne and Arles the most imposing corporations were those of the traders by sea, the powerful navicularii; at river ports there were the nautae, the river shippers, barge owners, etc.—generally men of substance and weight in their city. Rather less august are the corporations of utricularii, lightermen, boatmen, etc., and the ratarii who were concerned in the building and use of rafts and may have worked ferries.

The utricularii seem to have been distinguished by their boats or rafts made buoyant by inflated skins, very useful in the navigation of the lagoons of the south. Such boats had been used by Hannibal when he crossed the Rhone. Many inscriptions of utricularii have been found, particularly in Provence, and at Narbonne and up the trubutaries of the Rhone (e.g. at Vaison on the Ouvèze). One intersting case is an identity disc from Cavaillon, with on one side the inscription Colle(gium) utri(clariorum) Cab(ellesnsium) L(uci) Valer(ii) Succes(si), and on the other a little model of an inflated skin.

Heavy traffic went as far as possible by river, and the nautae are extremely important all over Gaul and are known on the Rhone, Saône, Seine, Durance, Ardèche, Ouvèze, Loire, Aar, Moselle, Rhine. The nautae were responible for the portage of goods from one river to another, so owned wagons as well as ships and barges. A shipper from Vannes has left an inscription at Lyons showing that he belonged to the corporation of nautae both of Loire and the Saône.

There were also corporations of hauliers—helciarii whose painful task it was to tow barges upstream, and some attractive sculptures show them at work. Sidonius writes of the boatmen he heard singing as the towed their cargoes through Lyons.”
[Roman-Gaul, Brogan,1953]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:04 PM

More on Greco-Roman maritime job-titles & infrastructure:

“The person who steered the ship and directed its course was called GUBERNATOR, the pilot, sometimes also MAGISTER, Virg. Æn. v. 176. Sil. iv. 719, or RECTOR, Lucan. Viii. 167. Virg. Æn. iii. 161. 176. He sat at the helm, Cic. Sen. 6.; on the top of the stern, dressed in a particular manner, Plaut. Mil. iv. 4.41. 45., and gave orders about spreading and contracting the sails (expandere vel contrahere vela), plying or checking the oars (incumbere remis vel eos inhibere), &c. Virg, v. 12. x. 218. Cic. Orat, i. 33. Att. xiii. 21.

It was his part to know the signs of the weather, to be acquainted with ports and places, and particularly to observe the winds and the stars, Ovid. Met. iii. 592. Lucan. viii. 172. Virg. Æn. iii. 201. 269, 513. For as the ancients knew not the use of the compass, they were directed in their voyages chiefly by the stars in the night-time, Horat. Od. ii. 16. 3., and in the day-time by coasts and islands which they knew. In the Mediterranean, to which navigation was then chiefly confined, they could not be long out of the sight of land. When overtaken by a storm, the usual method was to drive their ships on shore (in terram agere vel efficere), and when the danger was over, to set them afloat again by the strength of arms and levers. In the ocean they only cruised along the coast.

In some ships there were two pilots, Ælian. ix.40., who had an assistant called PRORETA, Plaut. Rud. iv. 3.75. i. e. Custos et tutela proræ, who watched at the prow, Ovid. Met. iii. 617.

He who had command over the rowers was called HORTATOR and PAUSARIUS (keleustes), Plaut. Merc. iv. 2. 4. Senec. Epist. 56. Ovid. Ibid., or Portisculus, Plaut. Asin. iii. 1. 15. Festus, which was also the name of the staff or mallet with which he excited or retarded them, (celeusmata vel hortamenta dabat), Plaut. Asin. iii. 1, 15. Isid. Orig. xix. 12. He did this also with his voice in a musical tone, that the rowers might keep time in their motions, Serv. ad Virg. Æn. iii. 128. Sil. v. 360. Valer. Flacc. i. 460. Martial. iii. 67. iv. 64. Quinctil. i. 10. 16. Stat. Theb. vi. 800. Ascon. in Cic. Divin. 17. Hence it is also applied to the commanders, Dio. l. 32. Those who hauled or pulled a rope, who raised a weight, or the like, called HELCIARII, used likewise to animate one another with a loud cry, Martial, ibid., hence Nauticus clamor, the cries or shouts of the mariners, Virg. Æn. iii. 128. v. 140. Lucan. ii. 688.
[Roman Antiquities, Adam, 1825]

Funerary Procession in the tomb of Qar (c.2350-2180BC)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:54 PM

“Cani, inquit, remigibus celeuma per fymphoniacos folebat, & per affam vocem, id eft, ore prolatam, vt in Argo naui per cytharam. poffumus etiam intelligere ad hoc fymphoniacos capi folere, vt in claffe pugnantibus clafficum canant, vnde ipfi tubæ claffis nomen pofitum eft clafficum.”
[Ioannis Antonii Valtrini Romani, Societatis Iesv, de re Militari Veterum Romanorum Libri Septem, 1597]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:46 PM

Norwegian Bokmål & Nynorsk: heiarop
1. shout of "heia!", a cheer.

Swedish: heja
1. (with på) cheer (on someone/something)
                Jag hejar på Manchester United.
                I cheer on Manchester United.
2. to greet by saying "hi!"


"The Scots (originally Irish, but by now Scotch) were at this time inhabiting Ireland, having driven the Irish (Picts) out of Scotland; while the Picts (originally Scots) were now Irish (living in brackets) and vice versa. It is essential to keep these distinctions clearly in mind (and verce visa)."
[1066 and All That]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:42 PM

Earlier mention, refrain only:

“Dass dieses Verfahren unmethodisch ist, den Sinn des Gedichtes stört und die Entstehung der Verderbniss nicht erklärt, werde ich an anderm Orte ausführlicher zeigen. Die Collation de Handschriften, besonders die des so musterhaft schön gesschriebenen Bembinus, ist, wie mich eine Nachcollation derselben 1875 überzeugte, in so hohem Grade nachlässig ausgeführt, dass Bährens nicht einmal die Schreibung des Namens des Vergil richtig angibt; im Titel hat der Bembinus uirgilii, nicht wie Bährens behauptet Uergilii! Auch darüber an anderm Orte Näheres. – S.76ff. gibt Bährens drei Inedita. Mit Sicherheit ist davon nur dar Schifferlied aus dem codex Santenianus s. VIII – IX, 16 Hexameter mit dem viermaligen Refrain »heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!« dem Alterthum angehörig; bei den Versen über Baiae und über Lucretia aus einem Manuscript des 15. Jahrhunderts scheint dies sehr zweifelhaft zu sein.”
[Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der classischen Alterumswissenschaft, Bursian, 1877]


Also: #62 in The Hundred Best Poems (Lyrical) in Latin (MacKail ed, 1906.) Same lyrics as Peck-Arrowsmith with no footnotes & credit to: “Incerti Auctoris.”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:26 AM

See Gibb on Lowlands and Hugill on origins (above.)

I'll say this for those wild & primitive pagan aboriginals… they clean up nice:

Lumen Vocale "Heia Viri"
Heia Viri – Anúna

“This version of the Roman rowing song was reputedly adapted by the Irish monk St. Columbanus (d. 615). This is one of his best known poems, and was probably inspired by his journey up the Rhine after his expulsion from Gaul.”
[McGlynn sheet music detail]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:21 AM

More of the same:

Heia Viri

p.172
Provided by the king with a body of sturdy oarsmen, the pilgrims descended the Moselle to Coblenz, where their boats swung into the "wide and winding Rhine". When Columban saw how the rowers toiled at their oars to make head against the rapid current, the refrain of an ancient boat-song ran through his mind:

        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Courage, men! let the echo of our song reply courage!

He thought it would encourage the boatmen to bend more lustily to their work if the strokes of their oars were accompanied by some such strain. So in imitation of the old pagan song, and retaining in part its wording, he composed a Christian sailor's song, the only example of its kind that has come down to us.2 Just as the sailors—such is its theme—encourage one another to oppose stout hearts to wind and wave and shower, so should Christian men with firm faith and trust in God after the example of Christ resist and overcome the assaults of Satan:

                                1.
        En silvis caesa fluctu meat acta carina
        Bicornis Rheni,3 et pelagus perlabitur uncta.4
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                2
        Extollunt venti flatus, nocet horridus imber,
        Sed vis apta virum superat sternitque procellam.
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

p.173
                                3.
        Nam caedunt nimbi studio caeditque procella,
        Cuncta domat nisus, labor improbus omnis vincit.5
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                4.
        "Durate et vosmet rebus servate secundis,6
        O passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem ".7
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                5.
        Sic inimicus agit invisus corda fatigans,
        Ac male temptando quatit intima corde furore.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                6.
        State animo fixi hostisque spernite strophas,
        Virtutum vosmet armis defendite rite.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                7.
        Firma fides cuncta superat studiumque beatum,
        Hostis et antiquus cedens sua spicula frangit.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                8.
        Rex quoque virtutum rerum f ons summa potestas
        Certanti spondet, vincenti praemia donat.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

Notes
p.172

2 The text of this Carmen Navale was discovered by Dr. W. Meyer, Secretary of the City Library of Munich in a Leyden MS. of the tenth century. He sent it to Ernst Diimmler, who immediately recognized it as an imitation of the ancient Boat-Song discovered by him in a Berlin MS. From the name of the author on the margin the first part is cut off; the second part—banus has led Krusch and Gundlach (N. Archiv., XV, 514) to ascribe it to St. Columbanus, with all the more probability as in the Berlin MS. the ancient boat-song is immediately followed by Columban's Verses to Fidolius.
3 Verg. Aen., 8, 727.
4 Ibid., 91.

p.173
5 Verg. Georg., I, 145.
6 Aen., I, 207.
7 Aen., I, 199.
[The Life and Writings of Saint Columbanus (542-614), Metlake, 1914]


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