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Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)

Sandra in Sydney 09 Apr 21 - 05:32 AM
Stilly River Sage 07 Apr 21 - 11:56 PM
Sandra in Sydney 07 Apr 21 - 07:36 PM
Donuel 06 Apr 21 - 04:35 PM
Donuel 06 Apr 21 - 09:03 AM
Stilly River Sage 04 Apr 21 - 12:00 PM
Bill D 03 Apr 21 - 01:00 PM
Stilly River Sage 01 Apr 21 - 09:18 PM
Sandra in Sydney 01 Apr 21 - 09:06 PM
Donuel 31 Mar 21 - 07:39 AM
Sandra in Sydney 31 Mar 21 - 05:08 AM
WalkaboutsVerse 24 Mar 21 - 02:38 PM
Donuel 24 Mar 21 - 02:03 PM
mg 24 Mar 21 - 01:57 PM
WalkaboutsVerse 24 Mar 21 - 01:33 PM
WalkaboutsVerse 23 Mar 21 - 08:08 PM
Donuel 20 Mar 21 - 09:17 AM
Donuel 20 Mar 21 - 07:53 AM
Donuel 19 Mar 21 - 11:44 PM
Helen 18 Mar 21 - 06:32 PM
Jon Freeman 18 Mar 21 - 06:22 PM
Helen 18 Mar 21 - 06:17 PM
Jon Freeman 18 Mar 21 - 04:50 PM
Helen 17 Mar 21 - 07:44 PM
Sandra in Sydney 17 Mar 21 - 07:19 PM
Helen 17 Mar 21 - 05:49 PM
Donuel 17 Mar 21 - 03:45 PM
Senoufou 17 Mar 21 - 02:36 PM
Donuel 17 Mar 21 - 11:48 AM
Sandra in Sydney 17 Mar 21 - 10:26 AM
Stilly River Sage 17 Mar 21 - 09:54 AM
Sandra in Sydney 17 Mar 21 - 12:55 AM
Sandra in Sydney 17 Mar 21 - 12:44 AM
WalkaboutsVerse 13 Mar 21 - 08:15 AM
Donuel 13 Mar 21 - 07:11 AM
Sandra in Sydney 13 Mar 21 - 02:07 AM
Steve Shaw 12 Mar 21 - 06:56 PM
Sandra in Sydney 12 Mar 21 - 06:27 PM
WalkaboutsVerse 12 Mar 21 - 03:40 PM
Stilly River Sage 12 Mar 21 - 03:04 PM
Steve Shaw 12 Mar 21 - 02:13 PM
Stilly River Sage 12 Mar 21 - 11:40 AM
Steve Shaw 12 Mar 21 - 09:33 AM
Donuel 12 Mar 21 - 09:04 AM
Steve Shaw 12 Mar 21 - 06:19 AM
Donuel 12 Mar 21 - 05:39 AM
Steve Shaw 11 Mar 21 - 08:12 PM
Donuel 11 Mar 21 - 07:49 PM
Donuel 11 Mar 21 - 07:31 PM
Donuel 11 Mar 21 - 07:10 PM
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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 09 Apr 21 - 05:32 AM

3,000-year-old ‘lost golden city’ of ancient Egypt discovered
BBC - 'Lost golden city' found in Egypt reveals lives of ancient pharaohs
national Geographc story


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Stilly River Sage
Date: 07 Apr 21 - 11:56 PM

I don't think this one has been shared here yet: Archaeologists unearth bronze age graves at Stonehenge tunnel site


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 07 Apr 21 - 07:36 PM

Stone slab found in France thought to be Europe’s oldest 3D map


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 06 Apr 21 - 04:35 PM

In Bill's neck of the woods there are gigantic white boulders of shocked quartz scattered everywhere. What is now the Chesepeak Bay was an impact site that created all the shocked quartz. Maany peple proudly display these white boulders in their yard as decoration.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 06 Apr 21 - 09:03 AM

Just from my informal observation as a people watcher I have seen faces of people who resemble early hominids in SE Asian populations (pigmentation aside) and Neanderthals in North America whose features were textbook and ancestry tinged with inbreeding in Zor Valley NY.
Honest to god some of the features were stark. I have not been so affected by tke features of native Americans who I find possess a global beauty of world wide variation.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Stilly River Sage
Date: 04 Apr 21 - 12:00 PM

I recognized the calcite crystals before I read the article - the interesting angles of crystal growth.

Quartz and iron pyrite (for example) would be useful together for sparks (fire starter) but calcite doesn't have that kind of use. Assuming that crystals were for decorative and ceremonial use is something we can do by associating our own attraction to shiny or pretty colors. Determining where the calcite came from would help determine trade routes or migratory habits of the people who spent time in that shelter. There's a comparable travelled rock from the Texas panhandle, a form of microcrystaline quartz found in the Alibates Flint Quarry. If you go to the site you see all of these spots where plants are growing in distinct round spots about 6 feet across scattered across the landscape. The quarries (hundreds, maybe thousands of them) were small holes dug, with rocks chipped out as they were mined, and over time they filled with blown topsoil. Plants were able to grow in that soil where the surrounding areas are still so rocky most plants can't get established. Those filled in quarries also would hold moisture to keep plants green year-round.

The flint from Alibates has been found down into Mexico and hundreds of miles east and west of the location. The surmise is that nodules of the beautifully-color quartz were easily carried for trade for knapping into points where they ended up. You wouldn't do that with calcite, it's too soft.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Bill D
Date: 03 Apr 21 - 01:00 PM

http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/kalahari-humans-09512.html

"Innovative Humans Thrived in Water-Rich Kalahari 105,000 Years Ago"


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Stilly River Sage
Date: 01 Apr 21 - 09:18 PM

Interesting - though it's a head-scratcher how they ended up in the soil in such a random fashion (of course, we don't know what was once on that soil - buildings, an encampment, etc., things not durable enough to leave marks).


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 01 Apr 21 - 09:06 PM

Arabian coins found in US may unlock 17th-century pirate mystery


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 31 Mar 21 - 07:39 AM

Going back much further, Neanderthals are being tracked by the mineral signatures in the very few workable flint outcroppings that were shared for thousands of years.

Some of the last Denosovians bred with modern humans on an island in Indonesia. Other rare remains were found in Nepal.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 31 Mar 21 - 05:08 AM

Dig reveals 6,000-year-old salt hub in North Yorkshire


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: WalkaboutsVerse
Date: 24 Mar 21 - 02:38 PM

I think I saw footage where it was temporarily damned to work on the fall itself, yes?

As you may know, Donuel, unlike yourself, Matthew Webb, the first to swim the English channel, sadly didn't live to tell the tale of swimming the Whirlpool Rapids below Niagara Falls.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 24 Mar 21 - 02:03 PM

I have overviewed studies of denosovian inter breeeding with modern humans that range from from 800,000 years ago to only 15,000 years ago in Papu New Guinea. Both are two seperate events and not continuous.
With mitochondrial DNA from large denosovian teeth it has shown populations in South Asian Indonesia show as much as 5% denosovian dna present especially in shared Gene 2. At any rate it doesn't matter much in this day and age, 'lawn chair paleoarcheologists agree'.
There does seem to be a mysterious relative or relatives with 46 chromosomes that started the human hominid branch in all its early diversity.

Dave btw in January I slipped and fell in Niagara Falls on the American side at Terrapin point. The exact spot was deemed too dangerous and was dynamited years ago. I was saved by my actual fingernails and two friends as I was only in up to my waist in slow current but the edge was only meters away. I remember how my pants were frozen solid on the walk back to the car.
People do inner tube in the fast Niagara river miles above Horseshoe Falls in July.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: mg
Date: 24 Mar 21 - 01:57 PM

i don't do much on google earth..but i am fascinated by archeological shows. i like to watch time team..on hulu I think. What mystifies me is how much pottery they find. Of course it was breakable...but did people just leave broken pottery around? Why is there so much? And coins...


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: WalkaboutsVerse
Date: 24 Mar 21 - 01:33 PM

...either way, be better, one feels, if Google, Twitter, etc., were owned and managed by the United Nations.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: WalkaboutsVerse
Date: 23 Mar 21 - 08:08 PM

I just learnt that photos contributed to Google Maps (more than 6,000 in my case with more than 6,000,000 views) may also be added to Google Earth; I shall have a look at that one day...


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 20 Mar 21 - 09:17 AM

Spirals look like galaxies or all orbits in time or DNA but global ancient rock art spirals meant - what. symbols


Cute article: Amongst the numerous images found on the walls of Palaeolithic caves, fluted lines, made by fingers dragged through a skin of wet clay remain some of the most intriguing. In their study of images at Rouffignac, the authors undertook experiments with a range of modern subjects who replicated the flutings with their hands. Comparing the dimensions of the experimental flutings with the originals, they conclude that the patterns on the roof of Chamber A1 at Rouffignac were made by the fingers of children aged between 2 and 5 years old. Given the current height of the chamber, such children would have needed to be hoisted aloft by adults. Who knows what lessons in art or ritual were thereby imparted to the young persons…


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 20 Mar 21 - 07:53 AM

An addendum to the antikythera mechanism (first computer) is that an American scientist took a second look at the artifact and published an article about it in Scientific American Magazine in 1959. Today the mechanism has been recreated as a working model that has amazing abilities to even compute apogee and perogee variable orbits.
What this means to me along with other finds that are merely in museum storage is where archeologists really need to explore with new eyes. Our paradigms have changed along with scientific methods that did not exist when many artifacts were packed away.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 19 Mar 21 - 11:44 PM

https://www.pri.org/stories/2012-11-28/archaeologists-confirm-indian-civilization-2000-years-older-previously-believed#:~:text=A Dikshit has a point!
At 8,000 years old it looks like they're as old if not older than the Sumarians.
Indians were around 22,000 years ago but not as a high civilization.
Ask mainstream Brit authoriies and they will tell you a different story about Indian antiquity as being 4 or 5K old. Its one of those looking through a biased imperial lens things. Evidence of civilizations are still all post ice age after the great melt and flood times. Perhaps the absolute oldest cultures may have gone under water long ago if they existed.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Helen
Date: 18 Mar 21 - 06:32 PM

Well, actually, thanks because I didn't realise there were two engineers named Robert Stevenson or Stephenson. Very confusing.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Jon Freeman
Date: 18 Mar 21 - 06:22 PM

Sorry about my spelling, Helen.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Helen
Date: 18 Mar 21 - 06:17 PM

You had me worried there, Jon, because given that the Stephens surname is in our family tree I thought I had misspelled "Robert Stevenson's" surname and I should have known better, however having done a quick Google the Scottish civil engineer was Robert Stevenson born 1772 - responsible for the Bell Lighthouse - and the English civil engineer was Robert Stephenson born 1803 - responsible for the steam engines.

Phew! What a relief! I won't be haunted by my relatives.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Jon Freeman
Date: 18 Mar 21 - 04:50 PM

I once lived in a house in North Wales that was probably named after a Scottish lighthouse. That was Skerryvore

The lighthouse was built by Alan Stephenson son of Robert in a whole tribey of lighthouse engineers. A lot of engineers but somewhere in that tree, you will also find the well know author Robert Louis.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Helen
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 07:44 PM

No, you see Sandra, that's what makes it an archaeological marvel. They used the TARDIS to go back in time to build it. LOL

Thanks for the correction and the further info.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 07:19 PM

oops a little typo - It was built between 1907 and 1810.

It was built between 1807 and 1810.

thanks for the link, Helen

wikipedia - Bell lighthouse off the coast of Angus, Scotland, is the world's oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse -
photo caption "Bell Rock Lighthouse with reef just visible" there it is poking out of the sea, what an amazing piece of technology

I wondered if there were pics of it during construction & found this in the same article, caption "Engraving of the lighthouse under construction in 1809, next to the temporary beacon that was constructed alongside it to accommodate the workers and serve as a temporary lighthouse"

Bell Rock Lighthouse – A stone tower in stormy seas The oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse, the Bell Rock Lighthouse is a triumph of engineering and persistence. - more pics & engineering info


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Helen
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 05:49 PM

This totally doesn't fit the thread name, but where else am I going to post it? :-D

Oh well, maybe it does fit the thread. The structure is over 200 years old and was a marvelous piece of engineering and construction.

The Secret Life Of Lighthouses
Documentary

"Presenter Rob Bell takes us on a voyage around Britain and Ireland to reveal the hidden secrets that make offshore lighthouses such extraordinary feats of engineering. Braving the awesome might of the North Atlantic to the tempestuous moods of the North Sea, Rob takes a look behind closed doors to crack the code of these of these enigmatic structures."

I've watched the two episodes aired so far on Oz TV station SBS.

Yesterday while busking on St Pat's Day across the road from a new high-rise building construction with a humongous counterweighted crane on top, I was thinking of the episode on the Bell Lighthouse which I had been watching the day before. Robert Stevenson, the engineer who designed and project-managed the construction of that lighthouse also had the bright idea to use a counterweight on large construction cranes.

The site of the Bell Lighthouse is a reef of rocks submerged except at low tide so construction was problematic, and some people said it was impossible. I also like the idea of the huge interlocking stone pieces used in the tower so that it could withstand onslaughts from the sea. The parabolic reflectors and later the Fresnel lenses to project the light were also interesting.

It was built between 1907 and 1810.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 03:45 PM

Lucy is over 3 million years old. Your beach friend is a youngster.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Senoufou
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 02:36 PM

I saw something on TV last night that I didn't know about. Apparently, on the beach at Happisburgh (Norfolk coast) ancient footprints of very early human beings have been discovered. They are about 800,000 years old, and only Africa has any older ones.
Oi orlways reckon'd wair bin hair a roit lorng toim bor!


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 11:48 AM

Do you suppose the Ancient Egyptians realized carrying heavy stones beneath their ships would allow for heavier loads and stability?
Meso Americans knew this trick. It also appears the Olmec had ocean trade routes to obtain jade.

40,000 year old ice age art
Great show worth the $1.99 if you don't have the science channel.
Even back then we were fscinated by cats, but probably for different reasons.

I love Mammouth cave.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 10:26 AM

thanks, stilly

it is so easy to remove stuff - tho sometime stuff gets returned

The Mystery Of The Uluru 'Curse' Take photos but leave the rocks. It's Australia's most famous rock and annually there are 300,000 people who visit the World Heritage listed site.
Sadly, a portion of those visitors feel that they want to take home more than just photos and memories. They "souvenier" a piece of the rock itself. Apart from it being an ethically and environmentally adverse thing to do, there are many who feel that the rocks they take from the rock are cursed.
While there is no curse that the Anangu, the traditional custodians, are aware of, they acknowledge that the removing of rocks from the area is hugely disrespectful to their beliefs and culture. It can also be expensive! Tourists caught trying to take pieces of nature from the national park can face fines of up to $8500 ... (read on & learn about the Sorry Rocks)


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Stilly River Sage
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 09:54 AM

I edited that second link. I worked in the Mammoth Cave area years ago; the friend who owned the commercial cave where I was working used to be a guide in the dry Mammoth Cave (National Park Service). There is a lot of evidence of human activity in there and the speleological folks drag out artifacts by the trash bag full. Including coprolites. All of it is supposed to be left in place, but there is no enforcement in there, apparently.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 12:55 AM

wow! Face of incredibly preserved 700-year-old mummy found by chance

oops, 2nd link above doesn't work, so I tried blickifying again. When I paste this in the last 3 digits won't appear - TWICE, https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologists-match-300-year-old-clump-fecal-matter-bishop-made-it-007058 so pop it into your own search engine

sandra


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 17 Mar 21 - 12:44 AM

yuk! Whole Rattlesnake Including Fangs Found Inside Lump of Fossilized Human Poo

Archaeologists Match 300-Year-Old Clump of Fecal Matter to the Bishop that Made


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: WalkaboutsVerse
Date: 13 Mar 21 - 08:15 AM

"Maybe, like me, they just think it's the best place on Earth..." (Steve)...and the fertile earth!


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 13 Mar 21 - 07:11 AM

Getting the sun to revolve around the earth was standard operating procedure back then. There is another way to make a hollow tube without a lathe. The mind that conceived of this 'eclipse predictor' is the real mystery and not just the mechanism. For a seafarer, a compass would be more valuable. Ancient polynesians used more subtle human senses for navigation. The ancient Ronco home dial a planet gizmo still remains cool and fragile.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 13 Mar 21 - 02:07 AM

Scientists may have solved ancient mystery of 'first computer' - Researchers claim breakthrough in study of 2,000-year-old Antikythera mechanism, an astronomical calculator found in sea


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Steve Shaw
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 06:56 PM

Naples is the third-largest urban area in Italy, taking in over three million people, most of whom live between Vesuvius on one side and Campi Flegrei on the other :-) You'd think that it was one of the most dangerous places on earth to live, and it probably is, but the Vesuvius observatory is pretty high-tech and keeps a wary eye on anything moving around underground. There's a huge contingency evacuation plan in place should there be adverse rumblings. But three million...?

The wonderful thing if you're a tourist is that Sorrento (a busy, lovely town: contact me for info on the best gelateria...) at one end and Naples at the other are connected by the Circumvesuviana railway. The whole journey from one end to the other is less than an hour and a half, and it costs next to nothing, and the trains are frequent. But en route you can stop off at stations for Stabiae, Pompei and Herculaneum, and you will! Beat that!! In Naples you have the archaeological museum, which is hot, steamy, un-air-conditioned and utterly stunning. To get to Pozzuoli and the Solfatara volcano you take a Metropolitana train from Naples, half an hour. Watch your pockets! And you simply must have a pizza in Napoli!

We stayed for a week just outside Sorrento, in a scruffy but brilliant place called Marina Grande. From there we could see right across the Bay of Naples to Naples and Vesuvius, and wonder why all those millions choose to live so dangerously. Maybe, like me, they just think it's the best place on Earth...


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 06:27 PM

wow!


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: WalkaboutsVerse
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 03:40 PM

Agreed, and I'd also fancy a detour for a swim in nearby Cala di Nisida - Location on Google Maps


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Stilly River Sage
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 03:04 PM

That was an interesting detour from the things I intended to be doing right now!


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Steve Shaw
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 02:13 PM

The town of Pozzuoli is a workaday sort of place, but at the bottom of the town is the Macellum, or market place, which has three upstanding marble columns which have signs of erosion caused by molluscs a long way up them, showing that the ground level was much lower in Roman times, another example of the bradyseism I mentioned. It's a bit of an uphill slog from there, passing some unexcavated Roman remains below the road at one point, until you reach the Solfatara crater. In 2013 it was €6 to go in, but you can bet it's gone up since then. The crater floor is flat and covered in a stark white deposit. There are plenty of menacing fumaroles spouting sulphureous fumes accompanied by loud hissing. There are also areas of boiling mud pools, one of which was the scene of a tragedy in 2017 when a young boy and his parents died - the lad fell in and the parents died trying to rescue him. In the early 4th century San Gennaro, patron saint of Naples, and San Proculus, patron saint of Pozzuoli, were both beheaded in the Solfatara. You can still see San Gennaro's bones in the crypt of the duomo in Naples (if you really want to). There was a phreatic eruption (ground water reacting with the underlying magma chamber) in 1198, so you wonder whether the volcano is flexing its muscles...

There are two amazing Roman villas in nearby Stabiae (where Pliny The Elder died during the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius). If you take a look at the satellite photo on wiki you can clearly make out the circle of the caldera, and you can see the little white patch which is the Solfatara crater. And plenty more. I don't half rattle on a lot about that area, but it's my absolute favourite place in the whole world. Sorry about that!


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Stilly River Sage
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 11:40 AM

I've poked around that part of the planet using Google Earth in the past. A visit today offered up an interesting photo of a sulfur vent Solfatara Volcano. I grew up around sleeping volcanoes (the Pacific Rim of Fire runs under the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest) but would think more than twice about living in such close proximity as the Naples community is situated.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Steve Shaw
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 09:33 AM

Correcting misinformation is not a dig. I'm simply asking you to check information before you post. Accurate information posted in threads such as this makes for a more pleasant experience.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 09:04 AM

There you go with a personal dig as always. Some new and challengable evidence is in the last links I provided. I can see how pockets remained longer than we thought. I too think climate and floods share extinction factors.

Also new is CRISPR technology so we can write new inheritable code into our DNA. Now that use for our 7,000 genetic diseases is reasonable imo but going beyond that is a risky and dangerous path fraught with unknowable results. China has already crossed the line. Believe me or not, individuals will sooner than later have home devices that can read and write inheritable genes.

The CRISPR application to ancient paleological and anthropological is greater than we may be able to know today.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Steve Shaw
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 06:19 AM

There is no evidence that Neanderthals were extant 20,000 years ago. Even 30,000 years is a stretch, with only scant and inconclusive evidence. The best estimate, based on solid evidence, is extinction around 40,000 years ago, and that the sharp cooling after the Campanian Ignimbrite, which lasted for at least a year, with acid rain being another adverse environmental factor for years afterwards, were quite likely pivotal in their extinction. I prefer to look things up before I post...


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 12 Mar 21 - 05:39 AM

I've only watched scuba diving shows of that caldera.
The ol Neanders' were out and about even 200,000 years ago. They faded away as little as 20,000 years ago, Assimilated along with at least 5 other hominid species we are still a diversity of other hominids in our genes. For example Sherpas in Nepal have more denosovian genes and Europeans have more ancient South east asian genes. wtf?
There has been a whole lotta sex and travel goin on for some time.
Science trys to show a detailed path of mankind.
Maybe our gene pot is so stirred by now, linear trends may only be an illusion
or not.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Steve Shaw
Date: 11 Mar 21 - 08:12 PM

I've always been very interested in the area near Naples known as Campi Flegrei, or the Phlegraean Fields, which is a caldera eight miles across, largely submerged in the Bay of Naples but with some manifestations on land, the Solfatara volcano for example. There was a huge supereruption of Campi Flegrei around 39000 years ago which measured 7 on the VEI scale (which basically means a very big eruption, the biggest in Europe for 200,000 years). Very shortly after the eruption there was a sharp climatic cooling, and at the same time the Neanderthals died out in Europe, to be replaced by modern humans. There are notions afoot, not settled by science, that these events were linked to the eruption. The caldera is still active, with a shallow magma chamber "hotspot" that was recently shown to be linked to the one under Vesuvius, about 12 miles away. The Solfatara crater is full of boiling mud pools and fumaroles, a great place to visit (there's a nice café/bar at the entrance and a nearby campsite that provides smelly nights). The area is noted for its rather scary bradyseism, large areas of land rising and falling in response to the magma underneath shifting around. In the early 80s the town of Pozzuoli was uplifted very sharply over a couple of years by several feet, and was evacuated for fear of an eruption. That time all was well. Like Yellowstone, it's a place worth keeping a wary eye on.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 11 Mar 21 - 07:49 PM

Now, they have published data revealing how these 'Neanderthalized' brain organoids behave.

On Thursday, a team, including Muotri, published a study in the journal Science detailing brain organoids they grew with the Neanderthal variant of NOVA1, a gene that influences neurodevelopment and function.

The addition, in turn, caused the organoids to differ from those strictly of the Homo sapien variety: They developed slower, expressed different electrophysical properties, and displayed higher surface complexity.

Muotri tells Inverse it’s fair to say these changes would influence specific abilities. “We know that even small perturbations during early development might have a dramatic impact on human behavior,” he says.

And while it’s premature to say Neanderthals acted in one way or another, the results do add to our understanding of the differences between these extinct humans and us. It’s understood we evolved to be a unique type of human. Cells in a dish may explain why.

WHAT’S NEW — This study helps explain why modern humans are different from Neanderthals by recreating a potential version of the past.
“This reverse-engineering approach can teach us how the archaic version of the gene behaves in the relevant cell types,” Muotri says.
“By knowing this, we can then create hypotheses on why these differences emerged.”

Genomic analysis comparing the genomes of Neanderthals to a diverse population of modern humans revealed there are 61 protein-coding genes different between the two groups. The study team decided to zero in on the gene NOVA1 because it’s “a master regulator of hundreds of other genes during neurodevelopment,” Muotri says.

Neanderthal brain organoids
The brain organoids with the Neanderthal version of NOVA1 developed uneven surfaces.Muotri Lab/UC San Diego

With the help of CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology, the team replaced the modern human allele of the NOVA1 gene in human pluripotent stem cells with the archaic NOVA1 gene from the Neanderthal genome.

Observations revealed this reintroduction caused changes in “alternative splicing” in genes involved in neurodevelopment, proliferation, and synaptic connectivity. Alternative splicing is a mechanism the nervous system uses to generate complexity and variability, Muorti explains. NOVA1 typically regulates alternative splicing in developing nervous systems.

“The archaic NOVA1 targets these genes to be spliced in different ways, generating new isoforms that we don’t detect in modern humans or will only appear at different stages,” Muorti says.

The organoids looked different too. Modern human brain organoids have a smooth surface, while the archaic versions have uneven surfaces.
Human brain organoids
Modern human brain organoids, without the archaic version of NOVA1.Muotri Lab/UC San Diego
Brain organoids, for their part, differ from actual brains in important ways. Their gene expression generally mirrors that of a developing brain in utero, but they are not a perfect reproduction of brain cell types, and there is some concern growing organoids can introduce unintended mutations. In a 2019 interview with Inverse, Muotri emphasized brain organoids are human-like — but not exactly human.

But experts suggest they do have the potential to revolutionize medical research when it comes to disease modeling and drug screening. And now, it appears they may revolutionize our understanding of what it means to be human.

WHY IT MATTERS — These results suggest the modern human version of NOVA1, which likely became a fixed part of Homo sapien DNA after our ancestors diverged from Neanderthals, some 500,000 to 800,000 years ago, was critical to our species’ evolution.

brain organoids
A tray of modern human brain organoids.Muotri Lab/UC San Diego
“The neural network consequence of the archaic NOVA1 is something we are super excited about and what to explore further,” Muotri says.

If we can watch brain organeles from Neanderthals beave next to sapian organelles you know damn well we could watch a neanderthal infant grow up this decade. CRISPR goes beyond our current ethics and philosphies imo.


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 11 Mar 21 - 07:31 PM

My fav You look just like Mr. Pinski!


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Subject: RE: Armchair Archaeologist (via Google Earth)
From: Donuel
Date: 11 Mar 21 - 07:10 PM

I've been reviewing Neanderthals lately regarding birth, pelvic size, early cranial growth and immunity factors. Basicly they are much like us but with high tinny voices. We are mostly Cro Magnon.

One of the better sites I found: https://www.inverse.com/science/the-abstract-vikings-neanderthals-setting-the-genetic-record-straight


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