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Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV

Related threads:
Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART III (115) (closed)
Origins: Died for Love: Sources: PART II (124) (closed)
Origins: Died for Love: Sources and variants (125) (closed)


Richie 01 Dec 17 - 05:11 PM
Richie 01 Dec 17 - 05:04 PM
Richie 30 Jul 17 - 02:33 PM
Steve Gardham 28 Jul 17 - 03:23 PM
KarenJoyce 28 Jul 17 - 01:04 PM
Richie 27 Jul 17 - 07:01 PM
Steve Gardham 27 Jul 17 - 08:26 AM
Steve Gardham 27 Jul 17 - 08:20 AM
Richie 26 Jul 17 - 09:24 PM
Steve Gardham 24 Jul 17 - 11:09 AM
Richie 23 Jul 17 - 07:46 PM
Richie 21 Jul 17 - 01:02 PM
Richie 21 Jul 17 - 12:29 PM
Richie 18 Jul 17 - 04:02 PM
Richie 17 Jul 17 - 09:17 PM
Richie 17 Jul 17 - 07:17 PM
Steve Gardham 12 Jul 17 - 05:37 PM
Richie 11 Jul 17 - 07:37 PM
Richie 09 Jul 17 - 09:32 PM
Richie 06 Jul 17 - 09:46 PM
Richie 30 Jun 17 - 10:23 AM
Richie 28 Jun 17 - 03:52 PM
Richie 27 Jun 17 - 05:15 PM
Richie 27 Jun 17 - 03:05 PM
Richie 26 Jun 17 - 05:26 PM
Steve Gardham 25 Jun 17 - 04:58 PM
Richie 25 Jun 17 - 03:58 PM
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Richie 20 Jun 17 - 02:31 PM
Richie 19 Jun 17 - 03:49 PM
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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 01 Dec 17 - 05:11 PM

Hi,

Several weeks ago I received the text of a broadside from Steve Gardham that is a link between c,1686 Nelly's Constancy and Alehouse/Brisk Young Lover versions of Died for Love of the late 1700s. It is now my A version:

Aa. "The Maidens Complaint for the Loss of her Love" date c.1750. No imprint, next BS no.5 dated 1743.) From BL 14.11.17 (1880 b.29) Description: 2 cuts at top of sheet: 18thc gent with wine glass in hand surrounded with flowers, lady with plants.

It's given here in full without The Answer (see supplemental texts), a second part or response:

"The Maiden's Complaint for the Loss of her Love"

1. My love has left me, Dear it is true,
Sorrow has taken me, what shall I do,
My love has left me, I know not for why,
Because my love has more Means than I.

2. How often has your false tongue me told,
You did not court me for Silver nor Gold,
Oh! but if I had Gold in store,
You would court me now as you did before.

3. Gold it will waste, and Silver fly,
In Time you will have as little as I,
As little as I, that most surely will be,
For I would go thro? the World with thee.

4. Will you be gone from me my Dear,
And leave me behind you in Sorrow and Care,
And is it so, that you care not for me,
Who would go thro? the World with thee.

5. My Love he is as bright as the Day,
His Breath is as sweet as the Flowers in May,
?Tis his pretty Looks that entices me,
My Dear, I?ll go thro? the World with thee.

6. My father will give me House and Land,
So that I?ll be at his Command,
But at his Command I never will be,
My Dear, I?ll go thro? the World with thee.

7. But if you do not stay too long,
Disdainful Love will prove too strong,
?Twill prove too strong Love fancy me,
And I will go thro? the World with thee.

8. Some will say that Love is blind,
But follow me Love and you shall find,
That Love was never so blind in me,
For Love I?ll go thro? the World with thee.

9. If I had Gold, you should have Part,
As I have none, you have my Heart,
You have my Heart, if I had thee,
My Dear I?ll go thro? the World with thee.

10. Farewel my sweet Jewel thou lovely Youth,
I find in your Words no Manner of Truth,
I?ll bid you adieu, you never will agree,
Tho? I could travel the World with thee.

This broadside develops in more detail the significance of "gold and silver" as established by the c.1686 broadsides "Nelly's Constancy" and "The Jealous Lover." The "gold and silver" stanza is later found in "Alehouse," "Brisk Young Lover" and "Butcher Boy." The "gold and silver" in the later variants of "Died for Love" are possessed by his new lover while in "The Maiden's Complaint" they are possessed by her lover, a distinction that should not be overlooked. Stanzas 6 and part of 3 of "The Maiden's Complaint" are also found in C, Rambling Boy.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 01 Dec 17 - 05:04 PM

Hi,

I've been going through some MSS from my grandfather's collection and found this full version sent to him which he transcribed the melody. I'm guesstimating a date of c.1947 while he was in Frostburg Maryland.

The Butcher Boy. sung by Carrie and Jane Pankratz of Cow's Bay, Oregon c. 1947 (Maurice Matteson MS Collection)

In London City, where I did dwell,
A butcher boy I loved so well,
He courted me my heart away,
And with me then he will not stay.

There is a strange house in this town,
Where my he goes up and sits right down;
He takes another girl on his knee,
And tells to her things he won't tell me.

I have to grieve; I'll tell you why:
Because she has more gold than I;
But her gold will melt, and her silver fly;
In time of need, she'll be as poor as I.

She went upstairs to go to bed,
And nothing more to her mother said;
My mother said "You are acting queer,
"What is the trouble my daughter dear?"

"Now mother dear you need not know
What pain and sorrow, grief and woe?
Give me a chair and sit me down,
With pen and ink to write words down."

And when her father first came home,
"Where is my daughter, where has she gone?"
He went upstairs and the door he broke,
And he found her hanging from a rope.


He took his knife and cut her down,
And in her bosom these words he found:
"A silly girl I am you know
To hang myself for the butcher's boy."

Go dig my grave, both long and deep;
Place a tombstone at my head and feet,
Upon my breast a snow-white dove,
To show the world I died for love!"

Must I be bound while he goes free,
Must I love a boy who don't love me,
Alas, alas it can never be
Till oranges grow on apple trees.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 30 Jul 17 - 02:33 PM

TY Karen, I was looking for the full text of Mrs. Walters NL. Stanzas 4-6 are from Constant Lady while stanza 7 hints at "Sheffield Park, a version not found in America.

Hi Steve,

Here is one broadside (no title given):

As I walk'd forth to take the air,
All in the month of May,
I heard a damsel talking,
She bonney blithe and gay.

However, this is not related to Died for Love to Constant Lady. Here's a note in Roxburghe:

Note.— The same first line, "As I walk'd forth to take the air," as in our (No. 1.)— "True Love rewarded with Loyalty," belongs to two other ballads. (No. 2.)— "The New-blossom'd Marigold;" mentioned on p. 177. But this was sung to the tune of Ah! Jenny, gin, etc. (No. 3.)— "As I walk'd forth to take the air, one morning in the Spring;" entitled "The Despairing Maiden revived by the Return of her Dearest Love." This was mentioned on p. 199, being sung to Tom Farmer's tune of "The fair One let me in."

The slip song was to be sung to the tune of Constant Lady. I can't find thw same listing now, sorry.

Hope this helps,

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 28 Jul 17 - 03:23 PM

If the slip song existed in the Roxburghe collection then it should be available on the UCSB website. If not give me the volume and page number and I'll have a look.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: KarenJoyce
Date: 28 Jul 17 - 01:04 PM

As far as I can tell based on a quick search, you still seek the following:

From Kenneth Peacock, Songs of the Newfoundland Outports, volume 3, page 705
Sung by Mrs. Thomas Walters, Rocky Harbour, July 1959

She Died in Love

1.        There is an ale-house in this town
        Where my love goes in and sits himself down,
        He takes some strange girl on his knee,
        And don't you think it's a grief to me.

2.        A grief to me and I'll tell you why,
        Because she has more gold than I,
        But her gold will waste and silver fly,
        There's a time she'll have no more than I.

3.        When I carried my apron low
        My love followed me through frost and snow,
        But now my apron is to my chin,
        My love passes by and won't call in.

4.        Down in yon meadow I hear people say
        There grows a flower so costly and gay,
        If I could chance one of them to find
        'Twould cure my heart and ease my mind.

5.        Down in the valley this fair one did go
        Picking those flowers so fast as they'd grow,
        Some she plucked and more she pulled
        Until she gathered her apron full.

6.        She carried them home and she made a bed,
        A stony pillow for her head,
        She laid herself down and nevermore spoke
        Because, poor girl, her heart was broke.

7.        When she was dead and her corpse was cold
        This sad news to her true love was told.
        "I'm sorry for her, poor girl," said he,
        "How could she be so fond of me?"

8.        Dig her a grave wide, long, and deep,
        A tombstone at her head and feet,
        And on her breast lay a turtle-dove
        So the world may know that she died in love.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 27 Jul 17 - 07:01 PM

Ty Steve,

The text you post is Hill's "Tavern" with a different title which I assume is not the version by Blockley that Broadwood mentioned but it could be the same but she said it wasn't. So we're still missing that text.

I've concluded that Radoo (which you sent) is derived from the song Adieu and there are a number of somewhat similar US traditional versions.

"As I walk'd forth to take the air" which was sung to Constant Lady was listed a slip song in Roxburghe but no version.

I have "As I walked forth one summer's day" an antecedent Constant Lady by Lutenist Robert Johnson c. 1611.

Harding B6 (106) given as 'A New Song' is similar to the opening and has sailor but doesn't seem to be close to Sailor Boy or Constant Lady.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 27 Jul 17 - 08:26 AM

>>>Another broadside I'm looking for is titled "As I walk'd forth to take the air" which was sung to Constant Lady<<<

I don't appear to have a broadside with this title.

I have 2 possibilities for this. Check out Bodleian Harding B6 (106) given as 'A New Song' with first line 'AS I went forth to take the air'

Also I have a 'Died for Love' relative 'As I walked forth one summer's day' which is a variant of the Oxfordshire Tragedy' in Playford, but I would have thought you had this.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 27 Jul 17 - 08:20 AM

I'll post it here as it's only short.

The best of Friends must part

There is a tavern in the town in the town
And there my dear love sits him down sits him down
And drinks his wine mid laughter free
And never never thinks of me
Chorus:
Fare thee well for I must leave thee
Do not let this parting grieve thee
But remember that the best of friends must part must part must part
Adieu adieu kind friends adieu adieu adieu
i can no longer stay with you stay with you
I'll hang my harp on the weeping willow tree
And may the world go well with thee
2
He left me for a damsel fair a damsel fair
With rosy cheeks and golden golden hair
And now my love once true to me
As proved as false as false can be
3
Oh dig my grave both wide and deep wide and deep
Put tombstones at my head and feet head and feet
And on my breast carve a turtle dove
To signify I died of love.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 26 Jul 17 - 09:24 PM

Hi,

TY Steve. The implication by Broadwood was that "The Best of Friends must part" by London printer by John J. Blockley was a version of Maiden's Prayer- if so, it would be the first extant version. Please send what you have.

I quote Broadwood: "Another edition, with more modernised words and slightly altered chorus, is published by Blockley, with "The Best of Friends must part" as its first title. In its jaunty modern form it is a great favourite amongst our soldiers."

This is not Tavern in the Town which she already mentioned, but it could be some variant and not Maiden's Prayer.

Another broadside I'm looking for is titled "As I walk'd forth to take the air" which was sung to Constant Lady. Do you have this? If so send it along. The text appears in several versions but I can't find the original broadside.

I've proofed the main headnotes and they are now reasonable: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7-died-for-love-brisk-young-sailorrambling-boy.aspx

Improved is the Tavern in the Town section. Comments welcomed

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 24 Jul 17 - 11:09 AM

Hi Richie,
I have it to this title in a ms c1906 but it's just the standard 'There is a Tavern in the Town' given another title. I'll copy it for you if you wish.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 23 Jul 17 - 07:46 PM

Hi,

I am looking for "The Best of Friends must part" by London printer
John J. Blockley probably printed 1870s to c.1900.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 21 Jul 17 - 01:02 PM

Hi,

Today all the the headnotes have been written and exist in rough form as found in these posts.

The Died for Love project has taken about 6 months and includes first:

7. Died for Love
   A. Died for Love-- Roud 60, Roud 495 ("I Wish, I Wish," "Alehouse") c. 1780 some early stanzas c. 1686
   B. The Cruel Father ("A squire's daughter near Aclecloy,") her love is sent to sea- dies of a cannonball; Roud 23272, number missing c.1785
   C. The Rambling Boy ("I am a wild and a rambling boy") Roud 18830, c. 1765
   D. Brisk Young Lover ("A brisk young sailor courted me,") Roud 60, c. 1785
   E. Butcher Boy ("In Jersey city where I did dwell") Roud 409; Roud 18832; Laws P24, late 1700s in the US
   F. Foolish Young Girl, or, Irish Boy ("What a foolish girl was I,") Roud 60, c.1770
   G. Queen of Hearts ("The Queen of Hearts and the Ace of sorrow") Roud 3195, 1820s.
   H. The Darling Rose ("My love he is a false love,"); broadside, an imitation of a minstrel version, dated 1851
   I. There is a Tavern in the Town by William H. Hills, c.1883. ("There is a tavern in the town") Roud 18834; "Radoo, Radoo, Radoo" and "Adieu" c. 1840s
   J. Maiden's Prayer ("She was a maiden young and fair") c.1918; Roud 18828

To view online: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7-died-for-love-brisk-young-sailorrambling-boy.aspx

These ten arguably different songs are all part of 7. Died for Love. A, D, and F are closest to what was once Roud 60, best represented by D. Brisk Young Lover. There are no Roud numbers for B or H (a single version) and one should be assigned for B since there are a number of versions.

In addition to these ten fundamental variants are these 26 appendices:

7A. The Sailor Boy, or, Sweet William
7Aa. Sailor on the Deep Blue Sea (Deep Blue Sea)
7B. Love Has Brought Me To Despair
7C. Sheffield Park (The Unfortunate Maid)
7D. Every Night When The Sun Goes In
7E. Will Ye Gang Love, or, Rashy Muir
7F. My Blue-Eyed Boy (The Willow; Sailor Boy)
7G. Early, Early by the Break of Day (Two Hearts; What a Voice)
7H. She's Like the Swallow
7I. I Love You, Jamie
7J. I Know My Love By His Way of Walking
7K. Love Is Teasing (Love Is Pleasing)
7Ka. Oh Johnny, Johnny
7L. Careless Love
7La. Dink's Song
7M. The Colour of Amber
7N. Through Lonesome Woods
7O. Must I Go Bound?
7P. I am a Rover (The Rover)
7Q. Deep in Love (Deep as the Love I'm In)
7R. Yon Green Valley (Green Valley)
7S. Down in a Meadow (Unfortunate Swain)
7T. Bury Me Beneath The Willow
7U. Wheel of Fortune (When I Was Young; The False Lover)
7Ua. Young Ladies (Little Sparrow)
7V. The Ripest Apple (Ripest of Apples)

Died for Love and these 26 songs and ballads (appendices) all have headnotes. Additionally there are headnotes for the individual versions (US & Canada Version- headnotes) (British and other versions- headnotes).

The three most important additional broadsides are:
Constant Lady and the False-Hearted Squire (c. 1686)
Unfortunate Swain (c. 1750 but earlier) see also "Waly, Waly"
Wheel of Fortune (c.1830)

Several other songs (Black is the Color; Madam, I have come to Court You etc.) are distantly related or related to the Appendices. They will not be added as appendices but will have a separate number as a listing.

I want to thank everyone for their help and suggestions, especially Steve Gardham who has generously supplied broadsides and text and Gwilym Davies who sent a few recordings. I'm asking Joe Offer to please leave this thread open for corrections and new versions until later this year. Comments and suggestions are welcome,

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 21 Jul 17 - 12:29 PM

Hi,

Here are the headnotes to "Wheel of Fortune" better viewed here: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7u-wheel-of-fortune.aspx

* * * *

[The Wheel of Fortune[1] is a broadside and a traditional song which is the antecedent of some UK stanzas of "Love is Teasing" collected in the early 1900s. Its stanzas are also found in the US song "Little Sparrow" and other members of the extended Died for Love family. Here's the main identifying stanza taken from my Aa, a Bodleian broadside[2]:

But turn you round, you wheel of fortune,
It's turn you round and smile on me;
For young men's words they are quite uncertain,
Which sad experience teaches me.

The UK stanzas of "Love is Teasing" do not use the main identifying stanza of "Wheel," instead they primarily use the opening stanza, "When I was Young" and the "I did not think he was going to leave me" stanza (see: Love is Teasing). Versions of The Wheel of Fortune, in general, do not have the Love is Teasing stanza common to Waly, Waly. Some versions, lacking the "Wheel of Fortune" stanza, are clearly versions of "Wheel," which identified by the opening stanza:

When I Was Young[3]- sung by Mrs. Duncan of Aberdeenshire about 1908.

1. When I was young, I was well beloved
And sat on every young man's knee
When I was blooming and in my blossom
A false young man deceiv-ed me.

This version also includes three other stanzas of "Wheel" and is identified by the opening stanza. The ten "Wheel of Fortune" stanzas[4] are floating stanzas which form a variation of the Died for Love theme: A young maid is deceived by a false lover who takes advantage of the maid and leaves her. Her "fortune" or her "fountain" have been broken, both are symbols of the loss of virginity. In at least one version[5], she is pregnant. This is implied by the loss of her virginity in the other versions. Although similar to the Died for Love theme, the maid in this song refuses to let the false lover break her spirit and is defiant in some stanzas-- even though in the end her fate is similar: "And love will soon put an end to me." She also condemns the false young man to a place of torment (hell) in the last stanza. Here's the text to the my Aa, the nine-stanza Bodleian broadside, Wheel of Fortune:

1. When I was young I was much beloved
By all the young men in the country;
When I was blooming all in my blossom,
A false young lover deceived me.

2. He has tried his whole endeavor,
He has tried all his power and skill,
He has spoiled all my good behaviour,
He has broken my fortune against my will.

3. I did not think he was going to leave me,
Till the next morning when he came in;
Then he sat down and began a-talking,
Then all my sorrows did begin.

4. I left my father, I left my mother;
I left my sister and brothers too;
And all my friends and old aquaintance,
I left them all to go with you.

5. But turn you round, you wheel of fortune,
It's turn you round and smile on me;
For young men's words they are quite uncertain,
Which sad experience teaches me.

6. If I had known before I had courted,
That love had been so ill to win,
I wad locked my heart in a chest of gold,
And pon'd it with a silver pin.

7. Then fare-ye-weel, ye false-hearted young man,
It's fare-ye-weel, since we must part;
If you are the man that has broke my fortune,
You're not the man that shall break my heart.

8. Of all the flowers that grow in the garden,
Be sure you pull the rose and thyme,
For all others are quite out of fashion,
A false young man he has stole my thyme.

9. But time will soon put an end to all things,
And love will soon put an end to me;
But surely there is a place of torment,
To punish my lover for slighting me.

The broadsides can be reasonably be dated 1830-1860. One early printing was by W. & T. Fordyce of 48, Dean Street, Newcastle who included "Wheel" with 17 other songs in "The Golden Songster: Comprising the Following Excellent Songs," 1832. A second broadside, my Ab, called a "street ballad" in possession of Richard Ford, a London bookseller, dated c. 1840, has an extra floating stanza (see first stanzas above) which follows the 4th stanza:

For after evening there comes a morning,
And after morning a bonny day,
And after one lover there comes another,
And it's ill to hold them that must away.

Ab is the same ten-stanza text as my Ac, "Wheel of Fortune- A Fine New Song" from W. & T. Fordyce, printers, 48 Dean St. Newcastle, c. 1840 which was printed in their Golden Songster as early as 1832. Ac and Ae have "you are the young man that broke my fountain," a veiled reference to the loss of her virginity-- already mentioned above. Both Aa, Ab and Ad have "you are the man that has broke my fortune," a more subtle inference. A number of broadsides were printed from around 1830 until 1860. According to Steve Gardham[6] "the broadside versions I have all seem to be the same 10 stanzas other than the 9-stanza Glasgow Poets Box which designates the tune as 'All Around My Hat'. It is not massively widely printed but I have records of printings all seemingly in the north of England and Scotland. [I have] Fordyce, Newcastle; Stephenson, Gateshead; Hoggett, Durham; Sanderson, Edinburgh, Elder, Edinburgh, Glasgow Poets Box (1855), nothing really earlier than c1830."

A song with the Wheel of Fortune title was sung by bass singer Richard Leveridge (1670-1758) at the Theatre Royal In Lincolns Inn Fields between 1714 and 1750 which might date as early as the late 1600s. It could be a reference the old song (c.1725) usually known as "Wheel of Life" with the first line beginning, "Wheel of life is turning quickly round." "Wheel of Life" has been also been printed as "The wheel of fortune. A new song (London, 1790)."

William Christie published a version, my B, in 1876 which he claims is from tradition and print in his book, Traditional Ballad Airs. Christie's tune came from"the singing of an old woman in Buckie, (Enzie, Banffshire,) from whose singing he arranged a great number of old Airs and Ballads. She died in the year 1866 at the age of nearly 80 years." Here is Christie's text;

The Wheel of Fortune.

WHEN I was young I was well beloved
In many gentle company:
And when thus blooming, just in my blossom,
A gay young man prov'd fause to me.

I did not think he was going to leave me,
Until one morning that he came in,
Till he came in and sat down and told me,
Then all my sorrows did begin.

"Oh, since it's so that you are to leave me!
And you and I must for ever part;
Though you have tried to spoil my fortune[7],
You're not the man that can break my heart.

But had I known, before I saw you,
That love was something so ill to win,
I'd have lock'd my heart in a golden casket,
And pinn'd it up with a silver pin."

Oh, how can I be blithe and glad now,
Or in my mind contented be!
Since the bonny lad, that I lo'ed so dearly,
Has now gone far awa' from me!

Of all the flowers that grow in the garden,
Be sure to pu' the rue in time!
For other flowers soon get out of fashion,
I pu'd rue late, and now it's mine.

Oh, turn ye round, ye wheel of fortune!
Oh, turn ye round and smile on me!
For young men's words are so deceiving,
As sad experience teaches me.

But after evening there comes the morning,
And after dawn there comes the day;
And after a fause love may come a true love;
He's ill to hold that will not stay.

Christie's version seems to have been edited to cover up the implied loss of virginity that is found in several stanzas of the broadside. The version also has an unusual ordering of stanzas. Other versions have been found in tradition but they are somewhat rare. Wheel of Fortune stanzas are found in the various Died for Love songs and its extended family-- especially "Love is Teasing." Usually only one or two stanzas are borrowed. The ballad is parallel to Waly, Waly sharing one stanza but does not share its Love is Teasing stanza. My C version "When I Was Young I Was Well Belov-ed," sung by Mrs. Margaret Gillespie (1841-1910) of Glasgow, has one stanza of Died for Love:

WHEN I WAS YOUNG I WAS WELL BELOV-ED

1. When I was young I was well beloved
In every young man's company
When I was blooming in my blossom
A false Young man deceived me.

2. I didna think he was going to leave me
Until the morning when he came in
When he sat down and began a talking
Then all my sorrows they did begin.

3. He has used all his endeavour
He has tried all his power and skill
And he has spoiled all my good behaviour
And broken my fortune against my will.

4. If I had known before I courted
That love it was so ill to win
I'd have locked my heart in a chest of gold
And pinned it up with a siller pin.

5. But after evening there comes a morning
An after dawning there comes a day,
An after one lover comes another
They are ill to hold that winna stay.

6. But gine my baby it were born
And set upon its nurse's knee
An I mysel were dead an gone
An the green grass growing over me.

7. But turn around ye wheels o' fortune
Turn around and smile on me
For young men's words are so deceiving
And sad experience teaches me.

Stanza 6 is borrowed from Died for Love. Importantly, it shows the maid is pregnant, a condition implied by her loss of virginity in the broadsides. "Wheel of Fortune" stanzas are also found in the "Come All You Fair and Tender Young Ladies/Little Sparrow" songs once popular in America. My G is categorized by Mellinger Henry as a version of "Young Ladies" as it has the two "little sparrow" verses. Here's the text:

"Come, Roll 'round the Wheel of Fortune." The song was recorded near Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, by Glada Gully, a student in Lincoln Memorial University.
   
1. Come, roll 'round your wheel of fortune,
Come, roll around once more for me;
A young man's love is quite uncertain,
My own experience teaches me.

2. Once I had a gay, young lover,
He was my joy; he was my pride;
But now he's going with another,
He's sitting by another's side.

3. 1 must confess I dearly love him;
I kept the secret in my breast;
I never knew an ill about him
Until I learned to love him best.

4. I never knew he was going to leave me
Until one night when he came in;
He sat down by me and told me,
'Twas when my trouble first began.

5. Had I the wings of a little sparrow,
I wouldn't pine nor would I die,
But I would follow my false-hearted lover
And tell him where he told a lie.

6. Had I the wings of a little swallow,
Or had I the wings of a turtle dove,
I'd fly away from this world of sorrow
Into some land of light and love.

7. Now, all you girls, take warning;
Be careful how you love young men,
For they are like the stars of morning,
As soon as daylight they are gone

Henry's version is similar to the "Young Ladies" versions in the US except for the inclusion of the "Wheel" identifying stanza, rarely found in tradition. Henry's ballad more clearly shows the "Wheel of Fortune" as an antecedent of "Young Ladies." Only the "swallow/sparrow" stanzas and the warning stanza are independent and found in a different broadside, "The Lady's Address to the Fair Maidens." The warning stanza found in "The Lady's Address" and also UK versions of "Love is Teasing" is sometimes preceded by stanzas of "Wheel." This short version from Bedfordshire, my F, shows the warning stanza was also present in the UK in the early 1900s:

"When I Was Young," sung by David Parrot of Bedfordshire, learned by 1924 from his family, collected Hamer.

1. When I was young I was well belov-ed
By all young men in this countree;
When I was young and just in my blossom,
A false young man deluded me.

2. He spoil-ed all my good behaviour,
He has used all his wit and skill
He spoil-ed all my good behaviour
And made me love him against my will.

3. Now listen all ye pretty maidens,
And pay ye heed unto what I say
Now listen all ye pretty maidens,
And by no man be thus led astray.

Although the 2nd stanza has substituted the 3rd line for the 1st line then repeated it, this important version shows the warning stanza associated with "Wheel." Another stanza may be used as an identifying stanza-- this is from the broadside Aa:

3. I did not think he was going to leave me,
Till the next morning when he came in;
Then he sat down and began a-talking,
Then all my sorrows did begin.

The B version from Grieg Duncan begins with this stanza[8] as does another Scottish version mixed with stanzas from Died for Love as well as the "Love is Teasing" stanza:

I Never Thought My Love Would Leave Me- sung by June Tabor

I never thought that my love would leave me
Until that morning when he came in.
He sat down and I sat beside him;
'Twas then our troubles they did begin.

Oh love is pleasing and love is teasing
And love is a pleasure when first it's new.
But love grows older and grows quite colder
And fades away like the morning dew.

There is a tavern in yon town
And there my love goes and he sits down.
He takes a dark girl on his knee
And tells her what he once told me.

There is a blackbird sits on yon tree;
Some say he's blind and cannot see.
Some say he's blind and cannot see
And so is my false love to me.

I wish my father had never whistled,
I wish my mother had never sung;
I wish the cradle had never rocked me,
I wish I'd died, love, when I was young.

The last three stanzas are associated with Died for Love. Tabor's source was Isabel Sutherland[9] who collected this song from one of the Stewarts at Blairgowrie. Lucy Stewart sang the Died for Love stanzas in her version of "I wish, I Wish." Stewart also sang "Love is Teasing" with a similar melody and style. A similar version, "I Little Thocht My Love Wid Leave Me," was sung by Norman Kennedy, a Scot singer who moved to the US.

The "Wheel of Fortune" stanza is found occasionally in versions of "Love is Teasing" and was collected by Barry from a singer of County Tyrone who insert in a courting song[10] (see JAF 1911) which is a different song sometimes titled, "Madam I Have Come to Court You." A number of versions (for example on titled Dublin City) from the UK have the "Wheel" opening stanza in them.

The "Wheel of Fortune" broadside was not widely print and only a half-dozen traditional versions are known. Its influence on other related songs including "Love is Teasing" and "Young Ladies/Little Sparrow" has been recently discovered[11] and perhaps more details on its origin may someday be known.

R. Matteson 2017]

_________________________________________________

Footnotes:

1. In this ballad the maid asks the Wheel of Fortune to turn and change her bad luck with love. Rota Fortunae or The Wheel of Fortune, is a medieval and ancient belief of the fickle nature of fate. When the goddess Fortuna spins the wheel, where it stops determines a good or bad future for that person. In The Bathhouse at Midnight: An Historical Survey of Magic and Divination by William Francis Ryan, he writes that ". . .the notion of the Wheel of Fortune is part of pagan belief in astrology going back to Zoeraster. . ." The Wheel of Fortune is the tenth Major Arcana card in most Tarot decks. Various constructions of the Wheel have been use to divine the future in Western civilization.
2. "Wheel of Fortune," broadside Firth c.18(132) from Bodelian Library online [no imprint, no date] 9 stanzas; probably printed by Hoggett (Durham).
3. "When I Was Young," sung by Mrs. Duncan of Aberdeenshire c. 1908, collected by Gavin Greig, The Greig-Duncan Collection.
4. The broadsides are nine or ten stanzas. Ten stanzas are the complete set.
5. One Died for Love stanza wishing her babe could be born is found in "When I Was Young I Was Well Belov-ed," sung by Mrs. Margaret Gillespie (1841-1910) of Glasgow. As she is Rev. J. B. Duncan's sister, I've date her version c. 1890 although it's probably much older.
6. Sent to me in an email in March, 2017.
7. Christie has "spoil my fortune" making the loss of virginity ambiguous.
8. "I never knew he was going to leave me" sung by Mrs. Milne of Aberdeenshire c. 1908. Greig-Duncan Collection.
9. Reported online at Mainly Norfolk.
10. The standard title is "Twenty Eighteen" or "Madam I Have Come to Court You." The same song with "Wheel" sung was reported in later Scottish tradition. Most versions use "Ripest Apple" stanza instead of Wheel of Fortune. Barry's version [Madam, I have come to court ye] was sung by S. C., Boston, Mass., native of County Tyrone, Ireland. See: Irish Folk-Song by Phillips Barry; The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 24, No. 93 (Jul. - Sep., 1911), pp. 332-343. Given in full in appendix (bottom of this page).
11. The recent studies include this and the other Died for Love studies from 7. Died for Love and especially this Appendix (7U. Wheel of Fortune) and its related appendices 7K. Love Is Teasing (Love Is Pleasing); 7Ua. Young Ladies (Little Sparrow) and 7V. The Ripest Apple (Ripest of Apples).
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 18 Jul 17 - 04:02 PM

Hi,

I added three versions of "Down in Meadow (Unfortunate Swain)" and now have these versions:

A. Various print/broadsides from c.1750
   a. "A New Love Song" [Unfortunate Swain] broadside c. 1750. From: Two excellent New songs. I. A new Love Song. II. Newcastle Ale, [1750?] (Roxburghe Ballads III. 421)
   b. "The Unfortunate Swain" from The Merry Songster. Being a collection of songs, Printed and sold in Aldermary Church Yard, Bow Lane, London, [1770?]
   c. "The Unfortunate Swain. A new Song" Harding B22(312); Madden Ballads, Reel 3, Frame 1936 c. 1780 (Baring Gould dates 1766).
   d. "Picking Lilies" from 1782 chapbook reprinted in W. H. Logan, "A Pedlar's Pack of Ballads and Songs;" also in Glasgow chapbook.
B. "In Yon Garden," from Charles Johnson (father of the Museum's James Johnson), learned as a child. In "Scots Musical Museum" of Johnson, 1787, VI. p. 582.
C. [In the Meadows] Taken down from Will. Nichols, Whitchurch, May 29 1891: his grandmother's song from about 1825. Baring-Gould F, MS from his notebooks, my title.
D. "Down In Yon Meadows", tune and text from Thomas Hepple; Manuscript, ca.1857
E. "Gathering Flowers," c. 1858, from the article "The Gin-Around" which was published in Godey's Lady's Book and Ladies' American Magazine in 1874 by J.B.S. The play-party was held at the "overseer's house" across a field from J. B. S.'s family home.
F. "Prickly Rose" from Christie's Traditional Ballad Airs, 1876
G. "Down in the Meadows" - sung by Mrs. Caroline Cox of High Ham, Somerset on August 8th, 1905. Collected Cecil Sharp, from his MSS. From: Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/9/604)
H. "As I Was Walking." Sung by Mrs. Tom Poole of Beaminister, Dorset in June, 1906
I. "Down In The Meadows." Sung by James Thomas of Cannington, Somerset on 20 April 1906. Collected by Cecil Sharp, from Karpeles, Sharp Collection, No. 35 B, p. 172. Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/9/989),
J. "Down in those Meadows" sung by Mrs. Cranstone of Billingshurst, Sussex; collected by George Butterworth, c.1907; originally titled "Waly, Waly." George Butterworth Manuscript Collection (GB/4/59)
K. "Gathering Flowers," my title, no title given. Secured by Miss Hamilton in 1909 from Nita Stebbins of the West Plains High School. From H.M. Belden's "Ballads and Songs," under the auspices of the Missouri Folklore Society, 1940.
L. "Gathering Flowers," sung by Jane Gentry, of Hot Springs, North Carolina in 1916
M. "Gathering Flowers," sung by Fanny Coffey of White Rock, Virginia on May 8, 1918; from Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/9/3045).
N. "Down in a Valley" as sung by Mrs. Gladys Stone of Fittleworth, Sussex. Recorded by Bob Copper in 1954.
O. "Down in the Meadow," sung by Jasper Smith: recorded by Mike Yates near Epsom, Surrey, probably April 26, 1975; from Travellers (12TS395, 1979).

I also added this info:

Since some of the stanzas are also found in Waly, Waly (Water is Wide), Cecil Sharp used "Waly, Waly" as his master title. Whereas Sabine Baring-Gould used the "Deep in Love" master title after the 5th stanza, 3rd line.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 17 Jul 17 - 09:17 PM

Hi,

Here are the longish headnotes to "Down in a Meadow (Unfortunate Swain)" which may be viewed online here: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7s-down-in-a-meadow-unfortunate-swain.aspx

I may be missing a version, comments, corrections and suggestions are, as always, welcome.

* * * *

["Down in a Meadow" is the title of a love song derived from the opening line of a group of broadsides with nearly identical text known as "The Unfortunate Swain," "Picking Lilies" and by other titles. It is identified by the first stanza and is named after the opening line or sometimes the second line with the title, "Gathering Flowers." Aa, "A New Love Song" dates back to c.1750 while Ab, "The Unfortunate Swain" is taken from The Merry Songster, c.1770. Ac, "The Unfortunate Swain-- A new Song" is a broadside with no imprint which is dated c.1780 and Ad, "Picking Lilies," is taken from a 1782 chapbook and appears in W. H. Logan's "A Pedlar's Pack of Ballads and Songs." At least six Unfortunate Swain broadsides were printed before 1800. One from Madden[1] bears the name, "Maid's Complaint." No attempt will be made to list and supply the texts for all the extant early broadsides. Four (Aa-Ad) are given here, which will suffice. These broadsides are nearly identical and are hereafter referred to as "The Unfortunate Swain" or "Unfortunate Swain." Since some of the stanzas are also found in Waly, Waly (Water is Wide), Cecil Sharp used "Waly, Waly" as his master title. Whereas Sabine Baring-Gould used the "Deep in Love" master title after the 5th stanza, 3rd line.

"The Unfortunate Swain" has one stanza, "Must I Go Bound?," which is an added stanza in many Died for Love songs and one stanza, "There's thousands, thousands in a room," in common with its relative 7A Sailor Boy (Sweet William). The earliest version of Sailor Boy that has the "There's thousands, thousands in a room," stanza is "Sailing Trade" from a c.1800 Scottish chapbook. The "Must I Go Bound?" stanza is found in older print sources [see the headnotes for 7O Must I Go Bound?] and is used in a variety of ways. In many traditional "Down in the meadow/Down in yon Valley" songs, the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza is missing. Some traditional versions are made up of entirely of stanzas from Unfortunate Swain broadsides, c.1750. The three traditional variants (Down in a Meadow; Must I Go Bound; Deep in Love), titled by the first stanza, are all part of the Unfortunate Swain group. "Must I Go Bound" is also associated with other songs whereas "Down in a Meadow" and "Deep in Love" are usually made up of stanzas from The Unfortunate Swain.

Here's the text for Ab, a standard broadside titled, "The Unfortunate Swain" from The Merry Songster; Being a collection of songs, Printed and sold in Aldermary Church Yard, Bow Lane, London, about 1770 (original spelling and capitalization kept):

"The Unfortunate Swain"

1. Down in a Meadow both fair and gay,
Plucking a Flowers the other day,
Plucking a Flower both red and blue,
I little thought what Love could do.

2. Where Love's planted there it grow(s),
It buds and blows much like any Rose;
And has so sweet and pleasant smell,
No Flower on Earth can it excell.

3. Must I be bound and she be free?
Must I love one that loves not me?
Why should I act such a childish Part
To love a Girl that will break my Heart.

4. There's thousand thousands in room,
My true love carries the highest Bloom,
Sure she is some chosen one,
I will have her, or I'll have none.

5. I spy'd a Ship sailing on the Deep,
She sail'd as deep as she could swim;
But not so deep as in Love I am,
I care not whether I sink or swim.

6. I set my Back against an oak,
I thought it had been a Tree;
But first it bent and then it broke,
So did my false Love to me.

7. I put my Hand into a Bush,
Thinking the sweetest Rose to find,
l prick'd my Finger to the Bone,
And left the sweetest Rose behind.

8. If Roses are such prickly Flowers,
They should be gather'd while they're green,
And he that loves an unkind Lover,
I'm sure he strives against the stream.

9. When my love is dead and at her rest,
I'll think of her whom I love best
I'll wrap her up in Linnen strong,
And think on her when she's dead and gon[e].

Although an early date of c.1750 is given for Aa, an unknown missing broadside was printed earlier since one traditional version, "In Yon Garden," predates 1750. The choice and the order of the Unfortunate Swain stanzas seems arbitrary. What's remarkable is that the individual stanzas exhibit a wide variety of emotions from the exhilaration of love (stanzas 1, 2, 4, 5) to the agony of despair and death (stanzas 3, 6, 7, 8, 9). Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of these love stanzas is that some of the stanzas are allegories with deeper meanings. The first stanza or more accurately the first line is occasionally found in the Died for Love songs and their relatives[2]. It's sometimes mixed with the similar line from "Constant Lady and the False Heart Squire," a c. 1686 broadside more commonly used in Died for Love. Stanza 4 ("If there's a thousand in the room") is found in Sailor Boy (Sweet William) a "traditional" relative[3] of Died for Love. Stanzas 7 and 8 are usually joined and come from Martin Parker's "Distressed Virgin" of c.1626. The other stanzas appear in print and in tradition in a variety of ways.

The opening stanza is similar to the parallel 1686 broadside "Constant Lady." At least some mixing has occurred in tradition. The earliest antecedent of Constant lady is "As I Walked Forth" by lutenist Robert Johnson (c 1560-1634) which begins similarly: "As I walked forth one summer's day/To view the meadows green and gay." A similarly titled version of Constant Lady/Died for Love is "Down In The Meadows," sung by Louie Hooper & Lucy White at Hambridge, Somerset on Dec. 28, 1903 [Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/10/64)]. Here's the first stanza:

Down in the meadow the poor girl run
Gathering flowers as fast as they spring
She gathered a flower from every bough-bud
Until she gained her apron full.

The first lines are very similar to Unfortuate Swain. The next example, "Through the Meadow She Ran," sung by Mrs. Emma Dusenbury (1899-1990) of Mena, Arizona in August, 1936 has combined text from both Constant Lady and The Unfortunate Swain:

Through the meadow she ran,
A-pickin' every flower that sprung
She picked; she pulled of ev'ry hue
She picked; she pulled red, white and blue.

* * * *

The plot of Unfortunate Swain (Down in the Meadow) is confused because of the admixture of floating allegorical stanzas. A semblance of a plot is established by the first stanza which culminates in the last stanza. Because the floating stanzas are cobbled together, it's hard to tell which stanzas should be sung by the man and which by the maid. Since the first stanza involves picking flowers, it could be sung by either the man or the maid. Stanzas 3, 4, and 9 are sung by the man. Stanza 8 could be sung by the maid. In general the broadside makes more sense sung by the man. The internal love stanzas show a deep conflict and reveal an unfaithful love. The possible theme as found similarly in "Constant Lady" is: A maid/her lover was down in a meadow gathering flowers, little do they know what love could do. As is Constant Lady the flowers in the first stanza may have been chosen for her burial bed. The internal stanzas show the deep love and painful conflicts which are caused by unfaithfulness. In the end, the maid has died, presumably she has "Died for Love." In the concluding stanza her lover will think on her when "she's dead and gone." Traditional full versions like the one sung by Gladys Stone of Fittlesworth in 1954, which was written down in her father John Johnson's notebook, are sung in first person throughout-- presumably by the man.

The title of another Unfortunate Swain ballad, "Deep in Love," is normally made up entirely of stanzas of Unfortunate Swain and is named for the end of the 3rd line in the 5th stanza:

I saw a ship sailing on the deep,
She sail'd as deep as she could swim;
But not so deep as in love I am, [deep in love]
I care not whether it sink or swim.

Unfortunately after 1891 when Sabine Baring Gould published the first version[4] of Unfortunate Swain titled "Deep in Love"-- all versions of Unfortunate Swain became labeled as versions of "Deep in Love," a practice still in effect today[5]. Versions are lumped in Roud 18829 which also includes "Deep in Love" and "Must I Go Bound." The Unfortunate Swain is still listed as Roud 60, a number that originally was used for all Died for Love songs and their relatives. The Unfortunate Swain is aligned with "Waly, Waly" and "Water is Wide" but is not closely related to the Deep in Love songs and ballads.

The first extant traditional version, my B, is a fragment reported by Charles Johnson, the father of the publisher of the Scottish Musical Museum, James Johnson. The elder Johnson said it was "an old song in his young days[6]." Since his son James was born about 1755, this would date the song back before the mid-1700s in Scotland. Here's the text in full:

IN YON GARDEN.
In "Scots Musical Museum" of Johnson, 1787, VI. p. 582

IN yon garden fine and gay,
Picking lilies a' the day,
Gathering flowers o' ilka hue,
I wistna then what love could do.

Where love is planted, there it grows;
It buds and blooms like any rose;
It has a sweet and pleasant smell:
No flower on earth can it excel.

I put my hand into the bush,
And thought the sweetest rose to find,
But pricked my finger to the bone,
And left the sweetest rose behind.

The earliest version Baring-Gould collected was a version from an informant whose grandmother sang the version about 1825. It's in Baring-Gould's MSS under F. Deep in Love[7]:

[In the Meadows] Taken down from Will. Nichols, Whitchurch, May 29 1891: his grandmother's song from about 1825.

In the meadow t'other day
Plucking flowers both fine & gay
Plucking flowers red, white & blue
I little thought what love could do.

Where love is planted there it grows
It buds and blossoms like a rose
It bears a sweet & pleasant smell
There's not a flower can it excell.

Ten thousand ladies in the room
My love she is the fairest bloom
[Surely she must be some chosen one,] [8]
I said I would have her or none.

The following account of D, along with the text is given in the online article, Water is Wide[9]: In 1855 the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne "appointed a committee 'to protect and preserve the ancient melodies of Northumberland." Two years later the Duke of Northumberland offered prizes for the two best collections of "ancient Northumbrian music". Thomas Hepple, a "local singer" from Kirkwhelpington, sent in his manuscript of 24 songs, in his own words "some old ballads I have had off by ear since boyhood" (Lloyd, Foreword to Bruce/Stokoe, pp. vi & xi; Rutherford 1964, pp. 270-2). His text – with six of the nine original verses - is very close to the printed versions and one may assume that he or his source had learned the song from a broadside or chapbook (online available at FARNE). The tune is clearly related to the one published in the Scots Musical Museum:

"Down In Yon Meadows", tune and text from Thomas Hepple; Manuscript, ca.1857

            Down in a meadow fresh & gay
            Plucking flowers the other day,
            Plucking flowers both red and blue,
            I little thought what love could do.

            Where love is planted there it grows,
            It buds & blossoms like any rose,
            Such a sweet and pleasant smell,
            All flowers on earth can it excel.

            There thousands thousands all in a room,
            My love she carries the highest bloom,
            Surely she must be some chosen one,
            I will have her or, I will have none.

            I put my hand into a bush,
            Thinking the sweetest rose to find,
            But I prick'd my finger to the bone,
            I left the sweetest rose behind.

            I spy'd a ship sailing on the sea
            Laden as deep as she could be,
            But not deep as in love I am,
            I care not whether she sink or swim.

            Must I be bound and she go free
            Must I love one that loves not me;
            Why should I act such a childish part
            To love a girl that should break my heart.

The Prickly Rose, my F, was published by William Christie in his Traditional Ballad Airs, 1876. His detailed notes regarding the air are given before his text:

    The first Strain of this Air was sent to the Editor in 1850 by a native of Buchan, And the second Strain he noted from the singing of the old woman referred to p 42. Bunting gives a set of the first Strain of this Air in his "Ancient Music of Ireland," Vol. ll. p. 71. (1811) "I am a poor and rambling Boy." This is no proof that the air is Irish any more than that the air is Irish, which Dr. Petrie noted in 1852 from a fiddler of Leitrim, and gives in his "Ancient Music of Ireland? Vol. I. p. 127, which is merely a set of "O, as I was kist yestreen" (Museum, IV. 330), a well known air in the beginning of the last century under the name,"Lumps of Pudding," not the "Lumps of Pudding" in Gay's "Beggar's Opera" (about 1726) which borrowed its name. Dr. Patric, forgetting that the Air, "O, as 1 was kist yestreen," had been published long ago, says, "It is very much in the style of Carolan's best jigs and planxtier, and may very possibly be a work by that prolific composer." The Ballad, "The Prickly Rose',' was long sung, in the Counties of Aberdeen and Banff, to scraps of the Air here given. Twelve lines of the ballad are given by Johnson in the "Museum" I. 582. (1803) written from the singing of his father, but to an Air different from the one given above.

The Prickly Rose. (From Christie, 1876)

DOWN in yon meadow fresh and gay,
I was pulling flowers the other day;
I was pulling flowers both red and blue,
But I little knew what love could do.

For there love's planted, and there it grows,
It buds and blooms like any rose,
It has such a sweet and a pleasant smell,
That nought on earth can it excel.

I put my hand into a bush,
Thinking a sweet rose there to find;
But prick'd my fingers to the bone,
And left the sweetest rose behind.

If roses be such prickly flowers,
They should be pull'd when they are green;
So he that finds an inconstant love,
I'm sure he strives against the stream.

I see a ship sailing on the sea,
As heavy laden'd as she can be;
But she's not so deep, as in love I am,—-
What is't to me though she sink or swim ?

Must I go bound, and she go free?
Must I love one that loves not me?
Why should I act such a childish part,
As to love a fair one that breaks my heart?

'Mong thousand thousands in a room,
My love does carry the highest bloom;
She surely is my chosen one,
And I shall wed her or else wed none.

Though she were dead and at her rest,
I would think on her whom I love best;
I would wrap her up in my memory strong,
And still think on her when she's dead and gone.

Christie's text is very close to printed texts. The order has varied greatly from the broadsides and the 6th stanza "I set my back against an oak" is missing.

The first extant US version, my E, has the "The Unfortunate Swain" opening and the "Must I Go Bound" stanza. E, which I've titled "Gathering Flowers," was a fragment of a play-party song collected before the Civil War in the US South and published in the article, "The Gin-Around" in 1874[10]:

All of them pretty girls a marching away;" and which was soon exchanged for one which ran thus:—

"As I walked out, one morning In May,
A gathering flowers (I looked so gay).
The prettiest little girl I ever did see
Come a-walking along by the side of me.

"Shall I go bound, or shall I go free?
Shall Hove a pretty girl that don't love met
No, no, no! it never shall be
That ever love shall conquer me!"

This was corroborated by a version collected by Cecil Sharp in Virginia in 1918 which provides a few additional lines:

GATHERING FLOWERS. (Play Game) Sung by Fanny Coffey[11] of White Rock Virginia on May 8, 1918.

As I walked out one morning in May,
Gathering flowers fresh and gay,
Gathering flowers pink and blue,
So little did I think what love would do.

The prettiest girl I ever did see
Come walking down by the side of me.
Must I go bound, must I go free,
Must I love a pretty girl that don't love me?

No, O no, it never can be,
Love can never conquer me.
I won't go bound. I will go free,
I won't love a pretty girl that don't love me.

My rambling days are over and passed,
And I've got a pretty little wife at last.
She was the one that once said No,
But now she says Yes, and it shall be so.

Anther short version from North America which could be considered a version of Unfortunate Swain or Deep in Love has been found[12]. It's a fragment of two verses that were recorded by Cecil Sharp from the singing of Jane Gentry in 1916 in North Carolina. The melody can be compared to the Coffey version:

            As I walked out one morning in May,
            A-gathering flowers all so gay,
            I gathered white and I gathered blue,
            But little did I know what love can do.

            Seven ships on the sea,
            Heavy loaded as they can be,
            Deep in love as I have been,
            But little do I care if they sink or swim.

Whether the Gentry version of Gathering Flowers is the play-party song as found in Appalachia and the American South or an archaic relic from the Hicks family is unknown. Since this version by Gentry has only two stanzas, either stanza may be used as the identifying stanza.

These fragments appears to be the only extant versions of Unfortunate Swain in North America. The "gathering flowers" stanza has some similarity to the "Constant Lady" stanzas found occasionally attached to Died for Love songs and could also be attached in that context. The only example I know is in "Through the Meadow She Ran," sung by Mrs. Emma Dusenbury (1899-1990) of Mena, AR in August, 1936:

Through the meadow she ran,
A-pickin' every flower that sprung
She picked; she pulled of ev'ry hue
She picked; she pulled red, white and blue.

The last two lines resemble the Unfortunate Swain/Pickin' Lilies text. There may be other composites still unearthed. In the 1900s in England an important version was collected by Bob Copper from a handwritten notebook by John Johnson (1865-1943), in Fittleworth, Sussex. It was sung by his daughter Gladys Stone who was recorded in 1954 by Copper. The text follows:

"Down in the Valley"

Down in the valley the first of May,
Of gathering flowers both fresh and gay
Of gathering flowers both red and blue
I little thought what love could do.

Where love is planted there it grows,
It buds and blossoms most like a rose,
It has a sweet and pleasant smell,
No flower on earth can it excel

I put my hand into the bush
Thinking the sweetest rose to find,
I pricked my finger to the bone,
I left the sweetest rose behind.

If roses are such prickly flowers
They ought to be gathered when they are green,
For controlling of an unkind lover
I'm sure strives hard against the stream.

I leant my back against an oak
Thinking its beams some trustive tree,
But first it bent and then it broke,
And so did my false love and me.

I saw a ship sailing on the deep,
She sailed as deep as she could swim,
But not so deep as in love I am,
I care not whether I sink or swim.

Thousands and thousands all on this earth
I think my love carries the highest show,
Surely she is some chosen one,
I will have her or I'll have none.

But now she's dead and in her grave;
Poor girl, I hope that her heart's at rest.
We will wrap her up in some linen strong
And think of her now she is dead and gone.

One important aspect of this full version is that the text is sung in 1st person by the man. One of simplest yet the most moving versions was sung by gypsy singer Jasper Smith near Epsom, Surrey, probably April 26, 1975[13]:

"Down in the Meadow"

1. Oh down in the meadow the other day,
Gathering flowers both bright and both gay,
Gathering flowers both red and blue
Little had I thought what love could do.

2. So I lean my back against an oak,
Thinking it was a trusty tree,
At first it bent and then it broke,
So did my true love to me.

3. A ship there is that sails the sea,
she's loaded deep as deep can be,
But no so deep as the love I'm in,
I not know where[whether] I sink or swim.

Conclusions
"Down in the Meadow" or "The Unfortunate Swain (Picking Lilies)" is a love song composed of floating allegorical stanzas that depict the ecstasy and despair of a relationship. In 1891 a version was published by Baring-Gould[14] titled "Deep in Love" which was named after the lyrics found in the 5th stanza, 3rd line: "But not so deep as in Love I am." Subsequent versions using the "Unfortunate Swain (Picking lilies)" stanzas have been also titled "Deep in Love." This arbitrary title is still used today, however, a standard practice for titling versions of Unfortunate Swain would be to use the fist line or keywords in the opening stanza. This was correctly done by Mike Yates when he titled the short 1975 version by gypsy singer Jasper Smith, "Down in the Meadow."

The Unfortunate Swain lyrics are similarly found in the parallel love songs, "Waly, Waly," and "The Water is Wide." Several short play-party versions titled "Gathering Flowers," were collected in the US from the mid-1800s until the early 1900s.

R. Matteson 2017]

_____________________________________________

Footnotes:

1. "Maid's Complaint" Text from undated broadsides in the Madden Collection (Madden Ballads, Reel 8, Frame 5377; Reel 9, Frames 5914 & 6132). It begins:
      Down in a meadow fine and gay,
      Plucking the flowers the other day,
      Plucking the flowers red and blue:
      I little thought what Love could do.
2. This popular stanza from "The Constant Lady and False-Hearted Squire" often appears in Died for Love songs:
      The Lady round the meadow run,
      And gather'd flowers as they sprung;
      Of every sort she there did pull,
      Until she got her apron full.
3. Only the traditional versions of Sailor Boy have acquired common stanzas from the Died for Love songs. Most traditional versions have at least one Died for Love stanza.
4. "Deep in Love" by the informant, Rev. S. M. Walker, appears in Songs And Ballads Of The West (1891) by Sabine Baring-Gould, ‎Henry Fleetwood Sheppard, ‎Frederick William Bussell.
5. The Roud index uses 18829 for all versions of The Unfortunate Swain, with master title "Deep in Love."
6. Whitelaw, Steinhouse and others. Stenhouse says he was informed by Mr. John Anderson, engraver and understudy to engraver James Johnson, "that the words and music of this were taken down from the singing of Mr. Charles Johnson, father of Mr. James Johnson." James Johnson, was born about 1755 in Ettrick, a small border village in the County of Selkirk, Scotland. Since Charles Johnson learned it as a child, his version is dated c.1743 which predates the c.1750 version of Unfortunate Swain.
7. This version in MS may be viewed online
8. I've added this line which was missing in the MS.
9. "The Water Is Wide" The History Of A "Folksong" by Jurgen Kloss.
10. From the article "The Gin-Around" which was published in Godey's Lady's Book and Ladies' American Magazine in 1874 by J.B.S. The play-party was held at the "overseer's house" across a field from J. B. S.'s family home before the Civil War. An arbitrary date of 1858 has been ascribed.
11. From Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/9/3045) with music.
12. From Sharp Ms.: CJS2/9/2544 (text), CJS2/10/3456 (tune) at The Full English Digital Archive; see also Smith 1998, p. 157.
13. "Down in the Meadow," sung by Jasper Smith: recorded by Mike Yates near Epsom, Surrey, probably April 26, 1975; from Travellers (12TS395, 1979).
14. "Deep in Love" was sent to Baring-Gould by Miss Octavia L. Hoare, Cornwall Cottage Dean, Kimbolton about 1889 from Baring-Gould's MS. See also the published version [in blockquotes] of "Deep in Love" by the same informant, Rev. S. M. Walker, as it appears in Songs And Ballads Of The West (1891) by Sabine Baring-Gould, ‎Henry Fleetwood Sheppard, ‎Frederick William Bussell.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 17 Jul 17 - 07:17 PM

Hi,

I waited until I had Utley's 1966 article before I wrote the headnotes for 7La. Dink's Song (Fare The Well). The renewed popularity of this folk song comes from the Coen Brothers 2013 movie, "Inside Llewyn Davis" featuring a shortened version by Oscar Isaac & Marcus Mumford

Utley's article "The Genesis and Revival of Dink's Song" was largely a disappointment. John Lomax, who collected the song and claimed to have recorded it, seemed to have embellished or forgotten the facts by the 1930s. The date he collected it was changed from 1904 to 1908 and even the 1908 date seems questionable. The facts are elusive and unfortunately Nolan Porterfield did not mention Dink's Song in his biography on Lomax. Here are my headnotes:


["Dink's Song" also known as "Fare Thee Well" is an African-American folk-song that was collected by John Lomax in Texas. Lomax's song is part of a larger group of African-America folk songs and spirituals with the "Fare Thee Well" chorus. Dink's Song has three "apron" stanzas which relates it not only to Careless Love (its appendix) but also to the Died for Love songs and ballads. Under the title "Fare thee Well" a shortened version was featured in the Coen Brothers 2013 movie, "Inside Llewyn Davis," which starred Oscar Isaac who also sings the song in the soundtrack assisted by Marcus Mumford.

In Best Loved American Folk Songs (Folk Song USA) John A. Lomax called Dink's song, "a beautiful Negro variant of Careless Love." Lomax tells how he found the song in 1904, when he made his first field trip for Harvard University:

"I found Dink scrubbing her man's clothes in the shade of their tent across the Brazos river from the A. & M. College in Texas. Professor James C. Nagle of the College faculty was the supervising engineer of a levee-building company and he had invited me to come along and bring my Edison recording machine. The Negroes were trained levee workers from the Mississippi River.

'Dink knows all the songs,' said her companion. But I did not find her helpful until I walked a mile to a farm commissary and bought her a pint of gin. As she drank the gin, the sounds from her scrubbing board increased in intensity and in volume. She worked as she talked: 'That little boy there ain't got no daddy an' he ain't got no name. I comes from Mississippi and we never saw these levee niggers, till us got here. I brung along my little boy. My man drives a four-wheel scraper down there where you see the dust risin'. I keeps his tent, cooks his vittles and washes his clothes. Some day Ize goin' to wrap up his wet breeches and shirts, roll 'em up in a knot, put 'em in the middle of the bed, and tuck down the covers right nice. Then I'm going on up the river where I belong.' She sipped her gin and sang and drank until the bottle was empty.

The original Edison record of 'Dink's Song' was broken long ago, but not until all the Lomax family had learned the tune. The one-line refrain, as Dink sang it in her soft lovely voice, gave the effect of a sobbing woman, deserted by her man. Dink's tune is really lost; what is left is only a shadow of the tender, tragic beauty of what she sang in the sordid, bleak surroundings of a Brazos Bottom levee camp.
"

Later Lomax changed the date when the song was collected to 1908. In 1906 Lomax attended Harvard University as a graduate student where his interest in folk collecting was encouraged by Barrett Wendall. In late 1906 he met one of his future mentors, George Lyman Kittredge. In the Spring of 1907 Lomax was planning to make a complete collection of cowboy songs and ballads of the west[1]. With his health failing Lomax received his A.M. from Harvard in June and returned to Austin. His 1908 Texas collecting trip was no doubt inspired by plans he made at Harvard to also collect African-America folk songs. Lomax later indicated that he had corresponded with Kittredge about his African-America collecting and Dink's Song[2]:

"The lyrics and music of "Dink's Song" are to me uniquely beautiful. Professor Kittredge praised them without stint. Carl Sandburg compares them to the best fragments of Sappho. As you might expect, Carl prefers Dink to Sappho."

Although the song is important to Lomax, are the details he has provided accurate? That Lomax originally said he collected Dink's song in 1904 then changed the date to 1908 is unsettling. It suggests that the elaborate details Lomax presented on Dink's Song (see above) may be wrong and raises questions about the song's authenticity. Lomax's suggestion that "The original Edison record of 'Dink's Song' was broken long ago" seems to be a fabrication. The recording device was not mentioned in his earlier 1917 article. It was pointed out by Nolan Porterfield in "Last Cavalier: The Life and Times of John A. Lomax, 1867-1948" that Lomax did not have access to a recording machine before 1909. therefore his claim that Dink's Song was recorded is doubtful unless the 1908 date is also wrong.

The text of Dink's Song, first published in his 1917 article[3], "Self-Pity in Negro Folk-Songs," includes 3 stanzas found in the "Died for Love" songs. Lomax's text may not be exactly what Dink sang since he edited the text[4] and sometimes added various related stanzas to make his songs fuller and longer. In 1934 Dink's Song was included in the Lomaxes book, "American Ballads and Folk Songs[5]." Here is the 1934 text which included a melody, presumably transcribed or learned by Lomax from the informant[6]:

1. Ef I had wings like Norah's dove,
I'd fly up de river to de man I love.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

2. Ise got a man an' he's long an' tall,
Moves his body like a cannon ball.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

3. One o' these days, an' it won't be long,
Call my name an' I'll be gone.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

4. 'Member one night, a-drizzlin' rain,
Roun' my heart I felt a pain.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

5. When I wo' my ap'on low,
Couldn't keep you from my do'.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

6. Now I wears my ap'on high,
Sca'cely ever see you passin' by.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

7. Now my ap'on's up to my chin,
You pass my do' an' you won't come in.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

8. Ef I had listened to what my mama said,
I'd be at home in my mama's bed.
Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

The last line acts as the chorus. Most of the stanzas are simply floating stanzas and some (stanzas 1,5,6,7 and 8) are found in versions of Careless Love. Dink's Song has been widely recorded since the 1930s and is also titled "Fare Thee Well." Francis Lee Utley in his 1966 article "The Genesis and Revival of Dink's Song" gives little information about the genesis of Dink's song and more information about the extant versions recorded before 1965. Some details about the original MS have been reported by Robert Waltz in the Traditional Ballad Index[7]:

On the other hand, Elijah Wald tells me, "I have looked through John Lomax's papers, and they include the full lyric he got from Dink in Texas, showing his editing process: first a handwritten transcription of her version, then a typescript that is a bit more organized but substantially identical, then an expurgated, edited, and rearranged version that is substantially the one published in ABFS. The final version is thus to some extent his creation, but all its components were in the version he transcribed from her, along with verses he left out because they were too rudimentary (one line repeated three times) or bawdy."

Without having access to Lomax's MS, it is impossible to recreate the original. What Wald's report of the MSS suggests is that the 8 stanza published version is what Dink originally sang although edited. On August 9, 1917 Lomax published his 5 page article "Self-Pity in Negro Folk-Songs," in "The Nation." Among the blues and folk lyrics were the lyrics of two songs as sung by Dink who Lomax called, "a lithe, chocolate-colored woman with a reckless glint in her eye." The first song, "Dink's Blues," was 21 couplets of blues stanzas and the second "Dink's Song" was the standard 8 stanzas of text found in "American Ballads and Folk Songs" with minor changes in dialect. Here's the text Lomax published in 1917 with his brief introduction to Dink's Song:

Dink sang another song of the deserted and lonely woman— a song with lyric beauty and pathetic appeal— and the rhythm of this one she handled in a way that gave the effect of a catch, or sob, at the end of each half-line:

If I had wings like Norah's dove
I'd fly up de river to de man I love—
Refrain: Fare thee well, O honey, fare thee well.

I've got a man, an' he's long an' tall
An' he moves his body like a cannon ball.

One dese days, an' it won't be long,
Call my name an' I'll be gone.

'Member one night, drizzlin' rain,
Roun' my heart I felt a pain.

When I wo' my ap'ons low
You'd follow me eve'ywhere I'd go.

Now I wears my ap'ons high
Sca'cely ever see you passin' by.

Now my ap'ons up to my chin
You pass my do' an' you don't look in—

If I'd a-listened to whut my mamma said,
I'd a-bin sleepin' in my mamma's bed.

In his 1947 autobiography, Adventures of a Ballad Hunter, Lomax rearranges the stanzas in what Utley[8] claims is the original order and text as it was collected. Here's the 1947 text:

1. One o' these days, an' it won't be long,
Call my name an' I'll be gone.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

2. 'Member one night, a-drizzlin' rain,
'Round my heart I felt a pain.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

3. I got a man an' he's long an' tall,
Moves his body like a cannon ball.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

4. When I wore my apron low,
Couldn't keep you from my do'.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

5. Now I wears my apron high,
Sca'cely ever see you passin' by.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

6. Now my apron's up to my chin,
You pass my do' an' you won't come in.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

7. If I'd 'a' listened to what my mamma said,
I'd 'a' been sleepin' in my mamma's bed.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

8. If I had wings like Norah's dove,
I'd fly up de river to de man I love.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

There is a change in the chorus-- 'thee' is replaced by 'you.' There are also slight changes in the dialect with "apron" replacing "ap'on" etc. In 1928 Mary Bales, a fellow member of the Texas Folk-Lore Society, published the song as titled "Fare Dee Well" in 1928[9]. Josh White recorded Dink's Song with the title, "Fare Thee Well," in 1945. The melody of Dink's song appeared in "American Ballads and Folk Songs,"and presumably it was the same melody recorded from John Lomax's singiing in the 1936 LOC recording made by Charles Seeger. The "Fare Thee Well" chorus has long been established as an African-America refrain. It was published as a chorus in John Queen's "Fare thee, honey, fare thee well" with music by Walter Wilson in 1901. "Fare thee well" appears in the African American spiritual "In That Great Gettin Up Mornin' " as well as in a number of blues such as Joe Calicott's "Fare thee Well Blues" recorded in 1930. Like 7L Careless Love, the "Fare Thee Well" songs are early forms of the blues. The chorus, however, is not important in this study-- what is important are the "apron" stanzas which clearly derive from the UK "Died for Love" songs and ballads and the relationship with Careless Love, another song with the "apron" stanzas.

Only the "apron" stanzas and the last two stanzas of Lomax's 1947 are clearly related to Careless Love. The "Norah's Dove" stanza which is the last in 1947 but in 1908 and 1934 was the first, was also quoted by W.C. Handy who called it a folk stanza. Handy's daughter included the stanza in her 1922 rendition of "Loveless Love." Here's how Handy printed it in his Treasury of the Blues:

If I had wings like Nora's faithful dove,
Strong wings like Nora's faithful dove,
I would fly away to the man I love.

The last line is echoed in a number of Died for Love songs in a variety of ways. Whether a blackbird or a thrush or turtle-dove or sparrow, all wish to fly to the one they love, even if he is a false lover. As evidence I give just two lines from "The Lady's Address to the Fair Maidens" c.1760 print[10]:

I wish I was a pretty swallow,
That nimbly in the air could fly,

The connection between this Newcastle print that is the antecedent of "Little Sparrow" with Dink, an African-America woman cleaning clothes at a levee camp on the Brazos River is tenuous. The "apron" stanzas sung by Dink are not:

4. When I wore my apron low,
Couldn't keep you from my do'.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

5. Now I wears my apron high,
Sca'cely ever see you passin' by.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

6. Now my apron's up to my chin,
You pass my do' an' you won't come in.
Fare you well, O honey, fare you well.

Whether sung by the great Scot singer Jeannie Roberston or by Dink, "a lithe, chocolate-colored woman with a reckless glint in her eye," the stanzas are an integral part of the Died for Love ballads and songs. The "Died for Love" theme is clearly evident in Dink's Song-- the deep love of a woman for her man, her pregnancy and the abandonment which follows.

After 1947 John Lomax, upon completing his autobiography, searched for Dink and found that she was buried in Mississippi at her original home in Yazoo County. We still don't know her real name,

R. Matteson 2017]

_______________________

Footnotes:

1. See: Last Cavalier: The Life and Times of John A. Lomax, 1867-1948 by Nolan Porterfield
2. Folk Song: U.S.A.: The 111 Best American Ballads - Page 40 by Charles Seeger, ‎Ruth Crawford Seeger - 1947.
3. Ref: John A. Lomax, "Self-Pity in Negro Folk-Songs," Nation 105 (9 August 1917): 141-45.
http://www.unz.org/Pub/Nation-1917aug09-00141
4. Robert Waltz reported in Traditional Ballad Index that Elijah Wald saw the original MSS and Dink's original version had been edited.
5. American Ballads and Folk Songs. New York: Macmillan, 1934; compiled by his son, Alan Lomax.
6. It's doubtful that an original Edison recording was made. The few stanzas that John Lomax sang were recorded for the LOC by Charles Seeger in 1936.
7. The current editor of the Ballad Index is Robert B. Waltz. Wald's comments provide no specific details of what changes were made by Lomax from the original MS.
8. Francis Lee Utley's 1966 article "The Genesis and Revival of Dink's Song" appears in "Studies in Language and Literature in honour of Margaret Schlauch."
9. See: Publications of the Texas Folklore Society - Issues 5-7 - Page 99. Utley gives a date of 1928 while google gives a 1926 date.
10. "The Lady's Address to the Fair Maidens," is a broadside printed by Angus of Newcastle c.1780 but dating earlier to c.1760 in a London collection.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 12 Jul 17 - 05:37 PM

Excellent stuff, Richie. Keep em coming.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 11 Jul 17 - 07:37 PM

Hi,

I've rewritten the headnotes to 7P. I am a Rover (The Rover): http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7p-i-am-a-rover-the-rover.aspx

I'm including the headnotes here:

* * * *

["The Rover," also titled "I am a Rover," is a song fashioned by London broadside writers in the early 1800s that later entered tradition. Its stanzas and theme are similar to those found in the Died for Love songs and is listed as appendix 7P "I am a Rover (The Rover)." My versions A-C are all broadsides. A and B are unique while C represents the standard broadside text as printed by the 1840s which was later found in tradition. A, listed in the Bodleian as Johnson Ballads 977 is titled "The Rover," and was printed by J. Pitts, Wholesale Toy Warehouse, 6 Great Street, Seven Dials. Andrew St. as early as c.1819. The text is given in full:

1. I am a rover, and that's well known,
Long time I've left my native home;
I've left my darling for to mourn,
She does not know when I shall return.

2. Did you not mention his coal black hair
His smiling looks doth my heart ensnare,
His sparkling eyes bewitched me,
I wish I never did him see.

3. I wish I was upon yonder hill
I'd set me down and cry my fill;
That all the world might plainly see,
That I lov'd a man that never loved me.

4. How could I act such a foolish part
To love a young man who broke my heart
If Cupid would but set me free,
I would seek another that would love me.

5. I wish I never lov'd at all
Since Love has proved my downfall
But now Cupid has set me free,
I will seek another who will love me.

Stanza 1 is the identifying stanza and the opening line and second line ending with home (known/home rhyme) are consistent. The identifying stanza seems to be a rewrite of the Died for Love's "Rambling Boy" and since he is a "rover" who has left "his darling" behind, floating stanzas follow which are sung by the maid of her misfortune. "The Rover" predictably follows the "Died for Love" formula: a maid falls in love with a rover who leaves her-- while she remains not knowing if he'll return. The remaining floating stanzas resemble a number of related songs. The first stanza is sung first person by the rover while the remaining stanzas are sung first person by the maid. Stanza 2 of A is found similarly in 7A, Sailing Trade as the "colour of amber" stanza. The first two lines of 3 resemble Shule Agra, last two lines Died for Love. The opening stanzas of Rambling Boy from "The Actor's Budget; Consisting of Monologues, Prologues, Epilogues, and Tales" by William Oxberry, 1811 appear:

I am a wild and roving boy,
And my lodging is in the island of Cloy;
A rambling boy altho' I be
I'll forsake them all, and I'll follow thee.

Were I a blackbird or a thrush,
Hopping about from bush to bush.
Then all the world might plainly see,
I love the girl that loves not me.

The opening line is similar and has "roving" rather than "rambling." At the end of the stanza instead of "leaving" his lover, he follows her. The last two lines of Oxberry's 1811 song match the last two of stanza three of "The Rover" almost exactly. The "[I wish] I were a blackbird" is a common form of the "I wish" stanzas found in Died for Love and its extended family. The similarities are enough for me to believe that Rambling Boy could be the antecedent. The following version, my B, also departs from the standard London broadside text of the mid-1800s.

B. "The Rashiemuir, a new song," a broadside, Firth c.26(30) c. 1830.

1. I am a rover, 'tis well known,
I am gone to leave my home;
To leave my home as you can plainly see,
Let all the world judge of me.

2. Its I went over yon rashiemuir,
Leaving the sight of my true love's door,
My heart was sore my eyes got blind,
Leaving my true love so far behind.

3. It's I will go and see my love,
Tho' I should walk to the knees in snow,
Its I will court him most cheerfully,
Let all me sorrows take wings and fly.

4. I love his father, I love his mother,
I love his sisters I love his brothers,
I love his comrades and all his kin,
And I love the regiment my loves in.

5. Oh I wish I was but a butterfly,
On my love's shoulder I would fly,
When all the world's fast asleep,
In my loves bosom I then would creep.

6. Some they say my love is black,
But where there's true love there's none of that,
His cunning glances entises me,
I cannot love a but he.

7. I wish I should but in peace remain,
I wish I was but a maid again,
A maid again I will never be,
Till an apple grows on an orange tree.

In B the first stanza is sung by the rover and the rest by the maid. This broadside is titled after the new "Rashie Muir" stanza[1] (2nd stanza). The "Rashie Muir" stanza is one of the two identifying stanzas from that Scottish ballad known by a variety of titles including "Rushy Moor"and "Will Ye Gang, Love?" In the broadsides of C, this stanza is always present but the name has been corrupted to Danamore [dreary moor], or other corruptions. Stanza 3 seems to be taken from Died for Love's "frost and snow" but has been widely changed. Stanzas 4, 5, and 7 are Died for Love/Rambling Boy while 6 has "love is black" which is found modified in "The Complaining Lover- A New Song" (ca. 1795) and texts similar to Child 295.

My C, titled "The Rover," is a broadside published first in the 1830s and 1840s in London. Ca, "The Rover," was printed by T. Birt, 39, Great St. Andrew Street, Seven Dials, London between 1833 and 1841. The broadsides of C represent the standard text that entered tradition. I give the following text from Cd printed by H. P. Such, while he was at 177 Union St. and Borough, London (see print illustration above). Since he operated there from 1863 and 1885, I've given a date of c.1872. All the broadsides of C bear the title "The Rover" and are 6 stanzas with minor differences. Here's the text of Cd in full:

The Rover

1. I am a rover, and that's well known,
I am now going to leave my home;
Leaving my friends to sigh and mourn,
Farewell, my bonny girl, till I return.

2. She drew a chair, and bade me sit down,
And soon she told me her heart was won;
She turned her head when I took leave,
Farewell, my bonny girl, for me don't grieve.

3. I sat me down and I wrote a song,
I wrote it wide and I wrote it long;
At every line I shed a tear,
At every line, I cried, Polly dear!

4. Oh am I single or am I free
Or am I bound to marry thee;
A married life you soon shall see,
A contented life shows no jealousy.

5. As I crossed over Dulcimore,
There I lost sight of my true love [door];
My heart did ache, and my eyes went blind,
Thinking of my bonny girl that I'd left behind.

6. I wished, I wished, but all in vain,
I wish I'd been a maid again;
A maid again I never will be,
Till apples grow on the orange tree.

The broadsides of C have some different stanzas and a different emphasis-- the rover shows a loving interest in the maid and regrets leaving her behind. The text is sung in first person by the Rover except for the last stanza which appears to be tacked on from Died for Love. Yes, the maid is pregnant! In the 2nd stanza which is new, he leaves her. The 3rd stanza is common with 7A Sailor Boy. The 4th stanza is a variation of 7O, Must I Go Bound. The 5th stanza is from Rashie Muir.

Another broadside "The Irish Boy" from Poet's Box, 80 London Street, Glasgow, dated 1872 has three stanzas in common with C:

"The Irish Boy"

What a foolish young girl was I,
To fall in love, with an Irish boy;
An Irish boy I suppose was he,
He spoke good English when he courted me.
He followed me thro' the frost and snow;
He followed me when my apron hung low,
But now my apron's wearing short,
And he passed me by as he know me not.

I am a rover, but that's well known,
And I'm just going to leave my own,
To leave my own love behind to mourn,
Bot no one knows, love, when I'll return.
As I was crossing you rushy moor,
and leaving sight of my darling's door
I turned round, and I bade farewell,
And I took my journey where no one can tell.

I wish, I wish, but it's all in vain,
I wish I was but a maid again;
A maid again, sure, I ne'er will be
Till apples grow on yon willow tree.

This broadside show the cross-fertilization of Died for Love and its extended family. It also shows that these same stanzas were being printed in Scotland.

The Tradition
The first extant traditional versions[2] titled "I am a Rover," were published with music in Traditional Tunes: A Collection of Ballad Airs, Chiefly Obtained in Yorkshire and the South of Scotland by Frank Kidson in 1891. The tradition is based almost wholly on the broadsides of C which date from the c.1830s. The assemblage of floating stanzas that have come from tradition and print are derived almost entirely from the Died for Love songs and their relatives[3]. The traditional version, D, was obtained by Mr. Holgate in Yorkshire for Frank Kidson who commented[4]:

"The first version is another excellent air from Mr. Holgate's store of remembrance of Yorkshire song. The words are found on broadsides, and copies differ slightly from each other."

These broadsides mentioned by Kidson are the different prints of C. Here's the earliest traditional text which appears in full:

I am a Rover

1. I am a rover, and that's well known,
I am about for to leave my home;
Leaving my friends and my dear to mourn,
My bonny lassie till I return.

2. She drew a chair, and bade me sit down,
And soon she told me her heart I'd won;
She turned her head when I took my leave,
"Farewell, my bonny lass, for me don't grieve."

3. I sat me down for to write a song,
I wrote it wide and I wrote it long;
At every verse I shed a tear,
At every line, I cried, "My dear!"

4. "O, am I bound or am I free?
Or am I bound to marry thee?
A married life you soon shall see,
A contented mind is no jealousy."

5. As I crossed over Dannamore," [yon dreary moor]
There I lost sight of my true love's door;
My heart did ache, my eyes went blind,
As I thought of the bonny lass I'd left behind.

6. "I wish, I wish, but it's all in vain,
I wish that he would return again;
Return, return, he'll return no more,
For he died on the seas where the billows roar."

Holgate's text is an assemblage of floating stanzas from the Died for Love songs and their relatives which are similarly found in various broadsides of C titled "The Rover." The variation of the "Must I Go Bound variant (stanza 4) is reminiscent of a stanza from 7R, Yon Green Valley[5]. As with the broadsides of C the opening stanza is similar to "Rambling Boy" while stanzas 2, 3 and the end of 6 resemble 7A, Sailor Boy (Sweet William). Stanza 5 is a corruption of the traditional Scottish song, Rashy Muir (Moor)[6] The word "Dannamore," (probably "by dreary moor") by its corruption shows that the stanza was taken by a writer from tradition.

Holgate's version and all the traditional versions are very close to print and represents a tradition not much older circa 1850[7]. The broadside and traditional versions suffer from a shift in the dialogue (between the Rover and his bonny maid) from 1st person by the Rover to an abrupt 1st person by the maid. In Holgate's version and the C broadsides this occurs between the 5th and 6th stanzas. In general, these shifts show the text was manufactured by a broadside writer by cobbling together stanzas from 2 versions. A skilled writer would tell the ballad story from the 1st person perspective throughout.

The broadside's last stanza is much closer to the standard Died for Love text than Holgate's which is taken from another song. Only one of six broadsides I've examined of C including from Kidson's collection had the end of the sixth stanza similar to Holgate's version. What is apparent is the modern song has two endings, see also version F collected by Sharp. Another difference is the "Polly dear" found in the broadside at the end of stanza 3. "Polly Dear" is consistently found in tradition as well. It's also found and is probably the source in some traditional versions of 7A Sailor Boy. Ce, an unknown broadside with no imprint, is the last broadsides listed-- rather than list every possible broadside (there are surely more, I'd estimate about a dozen printed from 1850 to around 1880) I've stopped at Ce.

A number of complete traditional versions were collected after Kidson's in the late 1880s. My versions D-L range from the early 1900s to around 1916. The song's continued popularity seems to stem mainly from Holgate's version which was published by Kidson in his Traditional Tunes. In the Waterson's recent version, the first stanza is used as the chorus. This is the opening of the popular version[8] by the Watersons who credit Kidson (Mr. Holgate of Yorkshire) for their version:

1. She drew a chair, and bade me sit down,
    And soon she'd told me her heart I'd won:
    She turned her head as I took my leave--
    My bonny lass, for me don't grieve.

Chorus: I am a rover, and that's well known,
    I am a-bound for to leave my home;
    Leaving my friends and my dear to mourn,
    My bonny lass, till I return.

Arranged by Mike Waterson, it was recorded at their club Folk Union One in Hull in 1966. It was reissued in 2004 on the Watersons' 4CD anthology Mighty River of Song.

"I am a Rover (the Rover)" is a broadside that is named after the opening line which resembles Died for Love's "Rambling Boy." Both A and B are broadsides that retain the first stanza but the remaining stanzas are different that C and the traditional versions that are based on C. Like its possible antecedent Rambling Boy, "The Rover" has not been popular in the UK. Both songs are fatally flawed-- they are made up of random floating versions from Died for Love that do not tell a story and consequently make little sense.

R. Matteson 2017]

_________________________________

Footnotes:

1. The stanza appears:
       Its I went over yon rashiemuir,
       Leaving the sight of my true love's door,
       My heart was sore my eyes got blind,
       Leaving my true love so far behind.
2. Two music versions are given with only Holgate's text.
3. The Died for Love song is "I Wish" while related songs include, Sailor Boy; Rashy Muir; and Must I Go Bound (sim. Yon Green Valley). Even the first stanza, which may be the product of a broadside writer, resembles Rambling Boy: I am a wild and a rambling boy/ My lodgings are in the Isle of Cloy/ A wild and a rambling boy I be/ I'll forsake them all and follow thee.
4. Quote from Traditional Tunes: A Collection of Ballad Airs, Chiefly Obtained in Yorkshire and the South of Scotland by Frank Kidson in 1891.
5. For example here's a stanza sung by Frankie Armstrong in her "The Green Valley":
    Oh am I bound or am I free?
    Oh am I bound to marry thee?
    A single life is the best I see,
    A contented mind bears no slavery.
6. "Dannamore" or "Dulcimore" are both corruption of "deary moor" as found in the Scottish ballad, "Will Ye Gang Love," or, "Rashy Muir." Here's a stanza from Greig-Duncan D:
    As I cam' thro' yon rashie moor
    Fa spied I in my true love's door?
    My hairt grew sair, and my eyes grew blin',
    To see my bonnie love leave me ahin'.
7. The earliest broadside version of C that I've seen is "The Rover," T. Birt, Printer, 39, Great St. Andrew Street, Seven Dials, London between 1833 and 1841.
8. The Watersons sang I Am a Rover at their club Folk Union One in Hull. This recording by Bill Leader was released in 1966 on their album The Watersons. Like all but one tracks from this LP, it was re-released in 1994 on the CD Early Days. It was also reissued on the Rhino sampler Troubadours of British Folk Vol. 1 and in 2004 on the Watersons' 4CD anthology Mighty River of Song [from Mainly Norfolk].
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 09 Jul 17 - 09:32 PM

Hi,

I'm nearly done with "Must I Go Bound" here are the main headnotes: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7o-must-i-go-bound.aspx

I'm including the first part here. Comments and corrections welcome!

* * * *

[The archaic "Must I Go Bound?" stanza appears in a variety of songs and broadsides usually as a dramatic floating stanza. "Must I Go Bound?" also appears with slight modifications-- including:

1) Shall I Go Bound?
2) Must I Be Bound?
3) Shall I Be Bound?
4) Should I Be Bound?
5) O, am I bound? [Kidson "I Am a Rover"]

These variant titles will be hereafter called "Must I Go Bound" or "Must I Go Bound?" (since it is a question posed). As well as being a floating stanza found in the Died for Love songs and various other songs and broadsides, the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza has been added to several stanzas of a separate song published by Christie[1] called, "The Belt Wi' Colours Three," producing variant songs now titled: "Must I Go Bound?" Christie's song had three "gift" stanzas. The theme of gifts that prove to be a burden to the maid and are unwanted is similarly found the broadside "The Complaining Maid," c. 1710.

A version titled, "Must I Be Bound?" was collected by H. E. D. Hammond from Jacob Baker in Dorset in 1905 also has a "gift" stanza. Baker's traditional version is similar to the broadside,"The Complaining Lover- A New Song" (ca. 1795, Madden Ballads). The last mentioned songs have a "gift" stanza that is similar to the two Irish songs titled "Must I Go Bound" (a girl's version and a lad's version) that were published by Sam Henry in the late 1920s with no attribution[2]. All the "gift" stanzas will be covered in more detail later in this study.

The history of the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza is a long one-- dating back to at least the early 1600s. Here are some early broadsides that have the ubiquitous "Must I Go Bound?" stanza:

From "The Maiden's Complaint"[3], 1633-4,

Shall I be bound, that[4] may be free?
Shall I love them that love not me?
Why should I thus seeme to complaine?
I see that I cannot him obtain.

From Roxburghe VII, 104-5 (The Maid's Revenge upon Cupid and Venus, Laurence Price[5]):

Shall I be bound, that may be free?
Shall reason rule my raging mind?
Shall I love him that loves not me?
No, though I wink, I am not blind.

Here's another stanza from "Arthur's Seat Shall Be My Bed, or: Love in Despair" (ca. 1701):

Should I be bound that may go free?
should I Love them that Loves not me?
I'le rather travel into Spain,
where I'le get love for love again;

The question Must I be Bound? is posed in Exempla Moralia[6]:

    Must I be Bound? What then? Am I now free?

From this early hypothetical query, the "Must I be Bound" question is posed by the singer:

Must I be bound and you go free?
or,
Must I be bound while he goes free?
or,
Must I be bound or must I go free?

This bondage imposed is not with a rope but rather it's a bond of love or the results of love: a pregnancy. "Must I go Bound" is routinely been attached to the Died for Love songs which are about a maid who has fallen in love with a false lover then becomes pregnant and is abandoned. Whether bound by love or the results of love, the maid bewails her helpless situation.

The opening "Must I Be Bound?" line is expanded to two lines in a variety of ways:

Must I be bound and you go free,
Must I love one who never loved me,

Must I go bound or must I go free
To love a young man who never loved me?

Must I be bound and you go free,
Must I be bound while he goes free?

Must I go bound while he goes free,
Must I love a boy that don't love me?

These two lines are expanded into stanzas. Perhaps the most common example of "Must I Go Bound?" is a stanza found in the Unfortunate Swain/Picking Lilies broadsides dating back to at least 1750:

Must I be bound, must she be free,
Must I love one that loves not me;
If I should act such a childish part
To love a girl that will break my heart.

This stanza has been varied in a number of ways-- here's the standard stanza as sung by the maid:

Must I be bound and you go free?
Must I love one who ne'er loved me?
Why should I play such a childish part
To go after a boy who will break my heart?

This is usually sung from the female perspective but is also sung from the male perspective:

Mus I be bound, or must I go free
To love a young maid who never loved me?
Why should I act such a childish part,
To love a young maiden with all my heart?

One early use of Must I Go Bound that is clearly related to the Died for Love songs is the broadside ballad titled "The Complaining Lover- A New Song" (ca. 1795, Madden Ballads). The first three stanzas are particularly relevant:

1. Must I be bound that can go free,
Must I love one that loves not me.
Let reason rule thy wretched mind,
Altho' I wink I am not blind.

2. He loves another one he loves not me,
No cares he for my company,
He loves another I'll tell you why
Because she has more gold than I.

3. Gold will wast and Silver will flys,
In time she may have as little as I,
Had I but gold and Silver in store,
He would like me as he has done before.

Stanzas 2 and 3 are found similarly in "Nelly's Constancy" of c1686 and are clearly related to the core stanzas of "Brisk Young Lover" and "Alehouse." "Must I Go Bound" is sometimes attached to Died for Love family member, Butcher Boy, found primarily in North America. An example of the common US stanza is found in Jane Hicks Gentry's "Butcher Boy" collected in 1916 by Cecil Sharp:

Must I go bound, must I go free,
Must I love a young man that won't love me?
O no, O no, that never shall be,
Till apples grow on an orange tree.

In Butcher Boy the popular extras stanza, "Must I go bound?" sometimes has this variation: "Shall I be young (bound), shall I be free." The ending is usually the same as the UK variants "Till an orange grows on an apple tree."

7F, "My Blue Eyed Boy," is a member of the extended Died for Love song family and most US versions have the added "Must I Go Bound?" stanza. The UK variants of the Blue Eyed Boy family, "My love he is but a sailor boy (Sailor Boy)" and "Willow Tree" do not have the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza. Here's a typical US "Blue Eyed Boy" version from Carl Sandburg's "American Song Bag":

Go Bring Back my Blue-Eyed Boy- sung by Frances Ries Batavia, Ohio, before 1927.

1. Go bring me back my blue-eyed boy,
Go bring my darling back to me,
Go bring me back the one I love,
And happy will I ever be.

2 Must I go bound while he goes free?
Must I love a man that don't love me?
Or must I act some childish part,
And die for the one that broke my heart?

The common "Must I Go Bound?" stanza in Blue Eyed Boy is the same as the one found in "The Unfortunate Swain," c. 1750. However, there are variations. Here the stanza as sung by Riley Puckett in 1929[7]:

Must I go bound and you go free?
Must I go bound and you go free?
No, no, no, that never shall be
That love like that shall conquer me.

In "The Blue Eyed Boy" the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza is usually present. Since the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza is held in common with The Unfortunate Swain, it therefore will be found in some derivatives of The Unfortunate Swain. These derivatives are titled after one of the floating stanzas (usually the first stanza) and usually include other stanzas from Unfortunate Swain. Examples of these ballads which may have the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza include the titles "Deep in Love," "Down In Yon Meadows," and "Prickly Rose." Since The Unfortunate Swain is also related to versions of "Waly, Waly" and "Water is Wide" they may also have the "Must I Go Bound" stanza. One rare US version with the "Must I Go Bound" stanza and "The Unfortunate Swain" opening was collected by Cecil Sharp in Virginia in 1918:

GATHERING FLOWERS. (Play Game) Sung by Fanny Coffey of white Rock Virginia on May 8, 1918. [Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/9/3045)]

As I walked out one morning in May,
Gathering flowers fresh and gay,
Gathering flowers pink and blue,
So little did I think what love would do.

The prettiest girl I ever did see
Come walking down by the side of me.
Must I go bound, must I go free,
Must I love a pretty girl that don't love me?

No, O no, it never can be,
Love can never conquer me.
I won't go bound. I will go free,
I won't love a pretty girl that don't love me.

My rambling days are over and passed,
And I've got a pretty little wife at last.
She was the one that once said No,
But now she says Yes, and it shall be so.

This version is corroborated by a fragment of the play-party song collected before the Civil War in the US South published in the article "The Gin-Around" in 1874[]:

All of them pretty girls a marching away;" and which was soon exchanged for one which ran thus:—

"As I walked out, one morning In May,
A gathering flowers (I looked so gay).
The prettiest little girl I ever did see
Come a-walking along by the side of me.

"Shall I go bound, or shall I go free?
Shall Hove a pretty girl that don't love met
No, no, no! it never shall be
That ever love shall conquer me!"

These are the only two extant US versions of 7S. Down in a Meadow (Unfortunate Swain). Two other Died for Love extended family members, 7P and 7R, also have the "Must I Go Bound?" stanza. My 7P, "I Am a Rover" has a broadside from around 1872 with this stanza[8]:

4. "O, am I bound or am I free?
Or am I bound to marry thee?
A married life you soon shall see,
A contented mind is no jealousy."

In 7R, Yon Green Valley a similar stanza is found in a version sung by Bruce Laurenson of Bressay, Shetland collected by Patrick Shuldham-Shaw in 1952 that was covered by Frankie Armstrong:

O if he's gone, then I wish him well
For to get married as I hear tell
My innocent babe I will tender care
Of his false promise let him beware

O am I married, or am I free
Or am I bound, love, to marry thee?
A single life is the best I see
A contented mind bears no slavery.

In the first stanza the maid bewails her pregnant condition and situation: her lover has left her and has promised marriage to another. She decides in the second stanza that she's better off without him!
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 06 Jul 17 - 09:46 PM

Hi,

I've finished roughing in the Careless Love headnotes here: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7l-careless-love.aspx

I've put 70 representative versions here:
http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7l-careless-love.aspx

Roud 422 is a mixture of different songs and need to be fixed. Careless love should not be mixed with True Lover's Farewell songs.

Cecil Sharp collected a version, plus another melody in Kentucky in 1917. It was not included in EFFSA but is in his MS.

I'll include it here:

Careless Love- sung by Mrs. Relaford of Barbourville, Kentucky on 9 May, 1917. Collector: Sharp, Cecil J.

Papa, papa, build me a boat
Papa, papa, build me a boat
Across the water I will float.
CHORUS: Love, O love, O careless love
Love, O love, O careless love,
It's hard to love and can't be loved.

I'm going to Tennessee
I'm going to Tennessee
To see that girl that cannot see me.
CHORUS: Love, O love, O careless love
Love, O love, O careless love,
It's hard to love and can't be loved.

Mama, mama, hold your tongue,
Mama, mama, hold your tongue,
You loved the little boys when you were young
CHORUS: Love, O love, O careless love
Love, O love, O careless love,
It's hard to love and can't be loved.

Now I wear my apron pinned,
Now I wear my apron pinned,
They pass the door and won't come in.
CHORUS: Love, O love, O careless love
Love, O love, O careless love,
It's hard to love and can't be loved.

When I wore my apron low,
When I wore my apron low,
They'd followed me through rain and snow.
CHORUS: Love, O love, O careless love
Love, O love, O careless love,
It's hard to love and can't be loved.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 30 Jun 17 - 10:23 AM

Hi,

I'm now on 7L. Careless Love, an interesting American appendix to Died for Love. Here are my headnotes so far: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7l-careless-love.aspx

The first extant version with the "Careless Love" Chorus is c.1896 and is a parody known as "Arch and Gordon" about a double homicide in Louisville in 1895. I'm including the first section of Notes although they're long (footnotes unfinished):

* * * *

[This famous song has been adapted by a number of genres in the US and abroad. The song is identified by this stanza sometimes used as its chorus:

Love, oh love, oh careless love,
Love, oh love, oh careless love,
Love, oh love, oh careless love,
Oh look what careless love has done[1].

Although a number of floating stanzas have been attached to Careless Love and in some versions its identifying stanza and theme have been lost, this song/ballad was either derived from or has stanzas similar to the "Died for Love" Songs and in particular the "apron" stanzas relating to the maid's pregnancy as found in the British "Brisk Young Lover," "Alehouse" and "I Wish, I Wish" songs.

It's clear "what careless love has done." The maid is pregnant and bewails her pregnant condition. If she'd have listened to what mama said, she would be sleeping in Mama's bed[2]. Instead she must face the stigma associated with being an unwed mother- not a happy proposition either in Scotland or rural Appalachia. As in the Died for Love songs she faces the prospect of being abandoned. Here's a stanza sung by Miss Grace Hahn, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1941[3]:

Go hand me down my old valise,
And bundle up my dirty clothes,
And if my momma asks about me
Just tell her I'm sleeping out of doors.

Many of the standard Careless Love stanzas directly correspond to those found in the Died for Love songs. It's already clear that the "apron" stanza are related. Now consider these other stanzas from Mrs. Lillian Short, Galena, MO, 1942, Randolph C (in brackets are corresponding lines from British versions):

Ain't this enough to break my heart, (3 times) [It's a grief to me]
To see my man with another sweetheart? [He takes another girl on his knee]

Now my money's spent and gone (3 times) [She has more gold than I]
You pass my door a-singing a song.      [He passes the door but won't stop in]

Oh I love my mamma and my papa too (3 times) [I'd leave my mother, I'd leave my father]
But I'd leave them both and go with you. [I'd leave them all to go with you]

In 1926 W.C. Handy copyrighted a version of "Careless Love" with folk lyrics as he presumably knew the song from his early days in Kentucky. Handy said in his Autobiography that he played the song in Bessemer in 1892 and that it had "since become popular all over the South."

Careless Love- W. C. Handy's folk lyrics, 1926

If I were a little bird
I'd fly from tree to tree;
I'd build my nest way up in the air
Where the bad boys could not bother me.

Love, oh love, oh careless love,
Love, oh love, oh careless love.
You've broke the heart of a a many poor girl
But you'll never break this heart of mine.

When I wore my apron low,
When I wore my apron low,
When I wore my apron low,
He always passed right by my door.

Now I wear my apron high,
Now I wear my apron high,
Now I wear my apron high,
And he never never passes by.

The first stanza is from "Little Birdie" a regional folk song while the last two stanzas are the part of "apron" stanzas. Handy published several versions, which will be covered later, but this version reflects the older texts found in the Appalachians in the 1800s. The relationship with Died for Love is much clearer in this version. John Jacob Niles in his 1932 article "White Pioneers and Black" in The Musical Quarterly, quotes Handy's version and gives his father's Kentucky version which probably dates back to the late 1800s:


    "The singers in the Southern Appalachians have odd rhythms, and they do repeat; but there is very little similarity between what they sing and how they sing it and what the Negro sings and how he sings it. Occasionally one finds the same verses sung in both. In practically every case it is a song that was originally a white man's song and has been adapted and sung over into the Negro idiom.

    One example is my father's version of "Careless Love":

             When you pass by my door I hang my head and cry,
             When my apron string I bow
             You pass my door and say hello
             Buy when my apron string I pin
             You pass my door and won't come in.

             Don't never trust no railroad man,
             He'll break your heart if he but can,
             He'll take your love and go his way
             Not meaning anything he say.

             Some day my apron string I'll tie
             And then I'll lay right down and die,
             And you won't know 'cause down in Hell
             The Devil's mean, he will not tell.


Unfortunately Niles is not an entirely reliable informant and tends to recreate his texts. Regardless, his father's version from northern Kentucky has the "apron strings" stanzas despite the corrupt mixture of text from at least two other songs. Niles attributes Handy's form of 3 repeated lines and a rhyming last line to the blues but clearly this is a folk form that predates or evolved into the 12-bar blues.

Another version from Kentucky that was sung in the 1920s was posted by famed Appalachian traditional singer Jean Ritchie on the Mudcat discussion forum:


    CARELESS LOVE-- as sung by the Ritchie Family in Knott County, Kentucky in the 1920s

    Love O love, O careless love,
    Love O love, O careless love,
    Love O love, O careless love,
    You see what love has done to me.

    Gone and broke this heart of mine,(3x)
    It'll break that heart of yours sometimes.

    Sorrow, sorrow to my heart, (3x)
    When me and my truelove must part.

    Once I wore my apron low, (3x)
    I could not keep you from my door.

    Now I wear my apron high, (3x)
    You pass my door and go on by.

    I cried last night and the night before, (3x)
    I'll cry tonight and cry no more.

    O how I wish that train would come, (3x)
    And take me back where I come from.

    Love O love (repeat first verse to close)

    Ritchie added this note: Some of the other verses given above worked themselves in over the years since then, but these are our basic verses. In the '50's, I sang with and recorded Jeannie Robertson, in Aberdeen. To my surprise she had a song which had some of these verses, among others we didn't have. One of her "matching" verses:

       O it's when my apron it bided low,
       My true love followed through frost and snow;
       But noo my apron it is tae my chin-
       And he passes my door, but he'll nae spier in.

The song Roberstson sang in Lomax's London flat around 1952 was her version of Died for Love, titled "What a Voice." Ritchie immediately heard and understood the intercontinental textual connection. Robertson's version was recorded a short time later in October, 1953 for Hamish Henderson and can be heard online at School of Scottish Studies. Jeannie learned it from her mother, Maria Stewart and her daughter Lizzie also sang a version. "What a Voice" is one of the great versions of Died for Love.

There are other examples of the relatedness of Careless Love and the Died for Love songs family. This first example is from another Kentucky singer who sang Butcher Boy with the melody and form of Careless Love:

The Butcher's Boy- sung by Aunt Molly Jackson of Kentucky in September 1935; recorded in New York City by Alan Lomax. Transcription R. Matteson 2017.

In Johnson City where I used to dwell,
In Johnson City where I used to dwell,
In Johnson City where I used to dwell,
There lived a boy I loved so well.

He courted me my heart away
He courted me my heart away
He courted me my heart away
And now with me he will not stay.

[It's a] grief to me I'll tell you why,

There lives some other girl in this town,
There lives some other girl in this town,
There lives some other girl in this town,
Where my love goes and sits him down.

Aunt Molly's version of Butcher Boy with the Careless Love melody and form and be heard at Internet Archive (online) in the Kentucky Lomax Collection.

Here's a composite version of two other Died for Love family members Sailor Boy and Careless Love which was collected by my grandfather Maurice Matteson and Mellinger Henry. My grandfather was leading vocal music at Southern Music Vocal Camp at Banner Elk in the summer 1933 where he met Henry. Mellinger was a good collector but he couldn't write music, so he persuaded my grandfather to help him. That persuasion ended up becoming the first of my grandfather's folk music books, Beech Mountain Folk Songs and Ballads:

    CARELESS LOVE- sung by Edward Tufts, Banner Elk, NC, July 15, 1933 from Beech Mountain Folk Songs and Ballads, M. Henry and M. Matteson.

    "Captain, Captain, tell me true:
    Does my Willie sail with you?"
    No, oh no, he's not with me-
    He got drowned in the deep blue sea."

    Refrain: Love, O love, O careless love,
    Love, O love, how can it be?
    Love, O love, O careless love,
    To love someone that don't love me.

    Love, O love, O love divine.
    Love, O love, O love divine.
    Love, O love, O love divine,
    Lucile, you know you'll never be mine.

    Refrain

    Hail that captain as he passes,
    Hail that captain as he passes,
    Hail that captain as he passes,
    That's him, I have my Willie at last.

    Refrain

The refrain and last stanzas are in the Careless Love form even though the last stanza is related to the Sailor Boy text. The 1st stanza and others like it are the presumed antecedents of "Deep Blue Sea":

"Captain, Captain, tell me true:
Does my Willie sail with you?"
No, oh no, he's not with me--
He got drowned in the deep blue sea."

* * * *

Naturally, different floating blues and folk lyrics became attached to Careless Love that are not part of the fundamental "Died for Love" songs. By the 1920s stanzas about pregnancy were often replaced[4] and other floating stanzas were added:

I wish that eastbound train would run
I wish that eastbound train would run
I wish that eastbound train would run
And carry me back where I come from

Times ain't like they used to be
Times ain't like they used to be
Times ain't like they used to be
Carry me back to Tennessee[5].

Careless love was widely recorded in the 1920s and 30s by early country music artists. Guthrie Mead[] lists 23 different early country recordings made between 1927 and 1938. These "country" versions were characterized by floating "blues" or "abandonment" type stanzas with the Careless Love chorus. Other traditional versions were collected with different floating lyrics from lovers farewell songs as in this stanza from Perrow (MS of 1909, Mississippi Whites):

I'm going to leave you now;
I'm going ten thousand miles.
If I go ten million more,
I'll come back to my sweetheart again[6].

These lyrics are from "Ten Thousand Miles" a different song[7], with a similar sentiment. Careless Love is listed as Roud 422 and unfortunately a number of different yet similar songs[8] are also part of Roud 422. In its original British form, this is not a lament about "a turtle dove" or "lonesome dove" that "flies from pine to pine." Neither is it a lover's farewell song about a lover "leaving and going away." Careless Love's floating stanzas and the identifying stanza's attachment to different songs have obscured its origin. In certain genres the origin is largely forgotten and it's an old blues or jazz song or a sad railroad song.

Although based on the Died for Love stanzas and theme[9] (a maid becomes pregnant and is abandoned by her lover), there seems to be no evidence that "Love, oh love, oh careless love," has ever been found in the UK. On Peggy Seeger's website it says:

   'Careless Love' descends from an English song 'You've Been Careless Love,' and she sings it in 3/4 time or waltz rhythm. The result sounds quite different from the more familiar tune variants associated with early African-American blues tradition[10].

However, this antecedent version has not been found. I had concluded after a brief study years earlier that the identifying stanza and sometimes chorus "Love, oh love, oh careless love" is solely of American origin and was joined to the "Died for Love" stanzas known by the English and Scottish settlers. Whether the "Careless love" stanza was of African-American origin, a "black rivermen's song[]" as sung on sternwheeler Dick Fowler between Cairo and Paducah, or whether it was adapted from its British roots by white settlers during their westward expansion-- is unknown.

According to Malcolm Douglas[11]: "The tune is basically 'The Sprig of Thyme', and 'Careless Love' frequently includes floating verses familiar from songs like 'Died For Love'; so its antecedents are essentially British, though re-made in America with new stylistic influences."

Careless Love is closely associated with my 7D, "Every Night When The Sun Goes In[12]." It's form is similar to a blues with a repeating opening line culminating with a rhyming answering line. What began as an Appalachian folk song eventually became known as a blues. From a blues it became a jazz classic performed by Bobby Bolden and others around New Orleans early in the 1900s[13]. One set of Bolden's lyrics were communicated by Susie Farr[14]:

Ain't it hard to love another woman's man,
Ain't it hard to love another woman's man,
You can't get him when you want him,
You have to catch him when you can.

Bolden's stanza is similar in some ways to Guthrie's "Hard Ain't it Hard" (see also Blue Eyed Boy) another floating stanza. One source, Jazzmen, stated[], "Among the the blues Bobby Bolden had to play every night was 'Careless Love Blues'. . . " This was corroborated by Willy Cornish in an interview with Charles Edward Smith[]. Other interviews with turn of the century New Orleans musicians like Wooden Joe Nicholas, and John Joseph makes it clear that Careless Love was played and sung around 1900 in New Orleans by many local musicians. W.C. Handy, whose relationship with the song has been a long one, suggested that the song moved south to New Orleans from the Ohio River area of Kentucky. The "Father of the Blues[15]" played a version of it in in Bessemer in 1892 and called it "one of the earliest blues[16]." In 1921 W. C. Handy[17] wrote "Loveless Love," using the tune and structure of "Careless Love." In his autobiography Handy said[18]:

"Loveless Love is another of my songs of which one part has an easily traceable folk ancestry. It was based on the Careless Love melody that I had played first in Bessemer in 1892 and that had since become popular all over the South."

Handy recorded "Loveless Love" for Paramount in 1922 with his daughter Katherine singing backed by his Memphis Blues Band. Other early versions include Noble Sissle & his Sizzling Syncopators, Alberta Hunter, Billy Holiday, and Fats Waller (instrumental). Handy recorded a version, singing the song himself, in 1939 on the Variety label. In 1926 WC Handy copyrighted his version of "Careless Love," the folk song. He recorded his version in 1938 and wrote about Careless Love and Loveless Love in his autobiography, Father of the Blues[19] One early recollection of Careless Love was described in his autobiography published by Macmillan in 1941:

    "In Henderson I was told that the words of Careless Love were based on a tragedy in a local family, and one night a gentleman of that city's tobacco-planter aristocracy requested our band to play and sing this folk melody, using the following words:

    You see what Careless Love has done,
    You see what Careless Love has done
    You see what Careless Love has done,
    It killed the Governor's only son.

    We did our best with these lines and then went into the second stanza:

    Poor Archie didn't mean no harm,
    Poor Archie didn't mean no harm,
    Poor Archie didn't mean no harm

    -But there the song ended. The police stepped in and stopped us. The song, they said, was a reflection on two prominent families. Careless Love had too beautiful a melody to be lost or neglected, however, and I was determined to preserve it.


The song that W.C. Handy sang that was stopped by the police was "Arch and Gordon," an obscure folk song. One full version was collected from from Mrs. Wills Cline in Louisville in 1956 and published in a 1960 edition of the Kentucky Folklore Record[]. The prominent families were the Fulton Gordon family and the family of Governor John Young Brown, whose son Archie was gunned down in 1895 in Louisville by Gordon for having an affair with Gordon's wife, Nellie. After murdering both Archie and his wife, Gordon was convicted of justifiable homicide and freed 9 days later. Handy must have played the ballad about 1896-- shortly after the murders. The song is a parody of Careless Love and unlike the other collected versions of "Arch and Gordon" uses the Careless Love chorus. Handy's autobiography continues:

[. . .] Having created a vogue for Careless Love, which John Niles calls Kelly's Love in his book of folk songs, I proposed to incorporate it in a new song with the verse in the three-line blues form. That week I went to Chicago, and while there I sat in Brownlee's barber shop and wrote Loveless Love, beginning with "Love is like a gold brick in a bunko game." There I wrote the music and made an orchestration which I took next door to Erskin Tate in the Vendome Theatre. His orchestra played it over, and it sounded all right. A copy was immediately sent to the printers.

Without waiting to receive a printed copy, however, I taught Loveless Love to Alberta Hunter, and she sang it at the Dreamland cabaret. It made a bull's-eye. Before Alberta reached my table on the night she introduced the song, her tips amounted to sixty-seven dollars. A moment later I saw another lady give her twelve dollars for "just one more chorus." I knew then and there that we had something on our hands and the later history of the song bore this out.
"

A $12 tip today would be about $168 and her $67 total tips would be $938-- not bad for an evening's singing! Handy's "Loveless Love" is not traditional but he published the traditional text he knew in 1926. His daughter recorded a version of Loveless Love in 1922 that still had two mostly traditional stanzas from Handy's old version-- one of which was not included in Handy's "traditional" text (see above). One line "We'd fly[] on wings like Noah's dove," is remarkably close to the first line in Dink's Song-- a coincidence? After becoming performed by Bessie Smith, Billie Holiday and other jazz singers, Careless Love returned to its Appalachian roots and became a bluegrass and country standard in the 1940s and 50s.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 28 Jun 17 - 03:52 PM

Hi,

7F. My Blue-Eyed Boy is finished for now, here's a link to the main headnotes: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7f-my-blue-eyed-boy-.aspx

I found 3 more US versions and have nearly all the extant printed versions. There are about 30 full versions. I'm including some of the headnotes here:

[This song, known by a variety of titles, is characterized by its Chorus which begins, "Oh, bring me back my blue-eyed boy" or in the UK "Bring me back the one I love." It is related to the "Died for Love" songs through floating stanzas which will be covered in detail later. Its theme is-- the abandoned maid hoping for the return of her false lover who has left her-- is similar to the theme of the Died for Love songs. The "Bring me back" songs are characterized by a variety of floating stanzas including "I wish" stanzas and the "Must I Go Bound" stanza also found similarly in The Unfortunate Swain, c. 1750. The "I wish" stanzas are different that the "I wish, I wish" stanzas in Died for Love. In the US the "Adieu, adieu," stanza[1], which is found as part of the chorus of "There is a Tavern," is sometimes present as well as "Who will shoe" stanzas found at the the end of Child 76, Lass of Roch Royal. The "Never change the old one for the new" stanza and the suicide stanza are found similarly in "Maiden's Prayer," a version of Died for Love popularized during World War I and II which is still popular today in the UK. The suicide stanza found in US versions of Blue Eyed Boy was derived from the popular Butcher Boy. Since in one main UK variant her love is but a "sailor boy," there is a connection with 7A. "The Sailor Boy/Sweet William" and possibly also with 7Aa. "Sailor on the Deep Blue Sea (Deep Blue Sea)." Arthur Tanner and Riley Puckett's 1929 recording "Bring Back My Blue Eyed Boy" has two stanzas of 7A. "The Sailor Boy/Sweet William." The obvious conclusion is that the Blue Eyed Boy is a sailor boy who has left her and she awaits his return.

The eleven Died for Love ballads and the twenty-six related appendices are characterized by floating stanzas built around a common theme-- a maid has been rejected and/or abandoned by her false lover. In "Blue-eyed boy" her lover has left her, she suspects he's been false and she hopes he will come back or be brought back and then she will happy be! Unfortunately for the maid, she's more likely to die for love, than have her lover brought back.

In Belden's headnotes to The Blue-Eyed Boy in "Ballads and Songs," 1940, he astutely writes, " Here divers images or motifs seem to have been gathered around a refrain stanza which gives the name to the song. " What he doesn't do is describe how the divers images are related. Since the "Must I go bound" stanza originated in the 1600s Belden dates it but doesn't date the song. Seventy years later Robert B. Waltz of The Traditional Ballad Index writes as the opening to the notes of Blue-Eyed Boy, " This is so close to 'The Butcher Boy' that I almost listed them as one song." Fortunately Waltz (and all) did separate them because obviously the two songs are quite different. Yes, a few versions here and abroad segue into Butcher Boy, but those are exceptions not the rule. What was not pointed out by either Belden or Waltz is the relatedness of the "Bring me back" songs and that these songs composed of different floating stanzas have originated from a common ancestor. Several different, yet related, branches have emerged which are grouped together here under my arbitrary "Blue-Eyed Boy" heading:

1) British: "The Sailor Boy." ("My love is but a sailor boy")
2) American: "My Blue-eyed Boy" ("Oh, bring me back my blue-eyed boy")
3) British: "Willow Tree" ("As I passed by a willow tree")

Whether found in North America along the Appalachians, in Ontario, the Mid-west or England and Scotland, its chorus is nearly the same-- suggesting a UK origin from a yet unknown broadside antecedent source that was brought to America and has been adapted. The American versions have "blue-eyed boy" in the chorus, while those found in UK do not. The chorus, although not always present, appears in the US as:

Oh, bring me back my blue-eyed boy,
Oh, bring my darling back to me,
Oh, bring me back the one I love
And happy will I ever be[2].

   The standard chorus in the UK appears:

Then give me back that one I love,
O! give, O! give him back to me;
If I only had that one I love,
How happy, happy should I be[3].

Obviously the Chorus does not suggest great antiquity and the unknown UK antecedent is probably no older than the early 1800s. In her 1915 article, Songs and Ballads of the Southern Mountains[4], Olive Dame Campbell said:

When I first began my collecting, seven years ago, this variety of material greatly puzzled me, but gradually I came to differentiate sections, singers, and songs. I found that the more accessible mountain sections rarely furnish good ballad material. Such semi-modern songs as My Blue-eyed Boy, and I Once Did Love with Fond Affection, are more or less commonly sung; but where books are easily obtained and life begins to become complex, the older ballads rapidly disappear.

Campbell did not suggest that the semi-modern song, My Blue-Eyed Boy, was of British origin and dated back one hundred years. Still, she is right that it's not one of the older ballads. Instead, Blue-Eyed Boy is a love song constructed by floating stanzas of mostly British origin with the British "Bring me back" chorus. The Romany gypsies, however, knew the song many, many years before Campbell's 1915 assessment of Blue-Eyed Boy in the Appalachians.

In his article Christmas Eve and After In (Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society- July, 1909) Thomas William Thompson commented: " There are a large number of variants of this song, which was a favourite with the old Gypsies. It is still remembered by the Gypsies of the Eastern Counties as well as by those of the North Country. "

These older British Romany gypsies include Thompson's informant Shandres Petulengro (b. 1862) and his contemporary Xavier Petulengro (b. 1859) a horse trader, violinist, fortune teller and writer. Jasper Petulengro who was two generations older is closer to the old gypsies that Thompson mentioned. Also known as Ambrose Smith[5], Jasper was a gypsy who George Borrow (b. 1803) befriended when they were young and became the leading subject of Borrow's book's "Lavengro" and "The Romany Rye." It's easy to imagine the "Willow Tree," a gypsy title of Blue Eyed Boy, being sung around the Romany campfires late at night during the early 1800s-- a date much older that the extant versions indicate.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 27 Jun 17 - 05:15 PM

Hi,

After checking I added three more US versions:

My Blue-Eyed Boy: Miss Haigood (OK) 1939 Owens
Remember Well- Fred High (MO) c. 1951 High
Blue-Eyed Boy: Myrtle Hester (AL) 1950 Arnold

The last version has the Child 76 stanza:

Blue-Eyed Boy: as sung by Myrtle Hester of Florence, Alabama, before 1950, collected by Bryon Arnold.

Oh who, oh who, will be my friend,
Oh who will love[1] my lily white hand
Oh who will kiss my ruby lips,
When he is in some foreign land.

CHORUS: Oh bring me back my blue-eyed boy
Oh bring back my darling back to me
Oh bring me back my blue-eyed boy,
And oh, how happy I would be.

Had I the wings of a little dove,
I'd fly to him I love, I love.
I'd fly to him I love so dear
And talk to him while she was near.

Remember well and bear in mind
That faithful man is hard to find,
And when you find one brave and true
Don't forsake the old one for the new.

1. usually "glove"

Stanza two is similar to "Little Sparrow" and implies that her lover is in another relationship.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 27 Jun 17 - 03:05 PM

Hi,

The US headnotes and versions are finished and can be viewed here: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/us--canada-versions-7f-my-blue-eyed-boy.aspx

There are some different associations in the US. One is with "Adieu" (see also Radoo) which is part of Tavern in the Town's chorus and the other with "Who's gonna shoe" floating stanzas of Child 76.

The UK versions and NA versions are obviously from the same source and have a nearly identical chorus.

Steve here are my Blue Eyed Boy versions so far:

    Blue-Eyed Boy: McDowells (TN) c.1897 McDowell
    My Blue-Eyed Boy: Brayman (AR) 1900 Randolph A
    My Blue-eyed Boy: Sadie Hewitt (NE) 1905 Pound
    Blue-eyed Boy: Julia Rickman (MO) 1909 Belden A
    Blue-eyed Boy: Nita Stebbins (MO) 1909 Belden D
    Blue-eyed Boy: Autherson (WS-MO) 1910 Belden B
    Adieu- Shirley Hunt (MO) 1911 Belden C
    My Blue Eyed Boy- F. Ries (OH) 1927 Sandburg
    My Blue-Eyed Boy: Mrs Jones(MO)1928 Randolph B
    Bring Back My Blue Eyed Boy- Carters (VA) 1929
    Bring Back My Blue Eyed Boy- Tanner (GA) 1929
    Blue-Eyed Boy: Nathan Hicks (NC) 1933 Matteson
    Blue-Eyed Boy: Mrs Vaughan (IN) 1935 Brewster
    Bring Back My Blue-Eyed Boy: A'nt Idy (KY) 1941
    Blue-Eyed Boy: Reba McDonald (AR) 1942 Rand C
    Blue-Eyed Boy: Lizzie Maguire (AR) 1958 Parler
    Go and Bring Me- LaRena Clark (ON) c.1960 Fowke
    Blue-Eyed Boy: O.B. Campbell (OK) 1971 Hunter

The other possible version is in Traditional Ballads of Virginia "Adieu" sung by Mrs. Stone (VA) 1916 Davis. Not many missing versions in print.

Some of the recordings are missing. I know Karl Davis, Aunt Idy Harper and Lily Mae Ledford sang the Renfro Valley version which is based on the Carter Family. I don't have the recordings by Davis (1936) or Ledford (cassette c. 1980, I can't find it now).

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 26 Jun 17 - 05:26 PM

Hi,

Don't have broadside, email a copy please and don't have Sam Henry B, on page 391. I'm missing a few Blue-Eyed Boy versions: one Louis Bird (1930s), one by Red-Headed Brierhopper 1933, and Morris Family 1930. Missing Fowke's Canadian version by John Laehy 1950s and Wehman broadside of 1880s.

I have put about 12 versions of Blue-Eyed Boy on my site.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Jun 17 - 04:58 PM

There is a broadside version of Rashy Muir printed by Glasgow Poets Box No 1203, titled 'The Irish Boy'. Have you got this?

If you point me to your full list of Blue-eyed Boy versions I'll check it with mine. I don't appear to have a copy of Fred's version.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 25 Jun 17 - 03:58 PM

Hi,

This is what I have on the 1909 gypsy "Willow Tree" versions: the first printed version with music appeared in the "Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society," July, 1909 from the article, Christmas Eve and After, by Thomas William Thompson. It was sung by Shandres (no last name).

An MS of 4 pages (two sheets folded) in Lucy Broadwood's collection is dated 1909 (written on the first MS sheet in red is "L.E.B. from Mr. T.W. Thompson Jan. 1909"). Roud lists Thompson as the collector (Lucy Broadwood Manuscript Collection LEB/5/380/2). There are 4 versions on the sheets:

1) Mr. P (Shandres Petulengro, b. Worcestershire in 1862- d. Westmorland in 1914) also incorrectly spelled Shadres. Roud has the last name Petulanengro, which is wrong.
2) Mrs. P (Mrs. Lavinia Petulengro, b. 1861)
3) a giorgio (My love He was a Sailor Boy)
4) Vensalena Petulengro, age 18 (their child?)

The informant's name is also Andrew (by Roud, Chandler) Smith. Petulengro being a Romany surname commonly written as Smith (Chandler). After looking at the MS, this is a composite from the three family versions, see also my version B, D. The changes from the MS for Mr. P's (Shandres Petulengro) version as it differs from Thompson's published version appear in my footnotes.

Chandler's review (Sheep-Crook and Black Dog) has a date of 1912 (which is wrong) and that Broadwood collected the versions (also wrong).

So I guess that's where the Broadwood misinformation came from. Any comments?

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 25 Jun 17 - 01:39 PM

Hi,

I'm on Blue-Eyed Boy, finished the UK versions missing 1) " As I Walked By a Willow Tree" Fred Jordan and 2) Bring Me Back the One I Love" Bill Pops Hingston. I have no old antecedents but the Kidson broadside of c.1890. The 1909 versions by Shandres Petulengro, a gypsy singer of Kendal and his family are collected by Thompson and in the Broadwood collection-- some song notes say they were collected by Broadwood- which according to Roud is wrong and I agree with Roud.

Here are UK notes for Sailor Boy/Willow Tree:

[There are two main opening stanzas for this rare British folk song. The first opening is the "My love he is a sailor boy/bold" opening as sung by Miss Ross about 1907, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland[1]:

My love he is a sailor bold
He ploughs the waves on the raging sea,
He wears a blue band on his arm
To tell how true he is to me.

This is usually titled "Sailor Boy" or "Sailor Bold" and is not related directly to 7A. Sailor Boy/Sweet William. The second opening was sung by Shandres Petulengro, a gypsy singer of Kendal, Westmorland[2]:

As I passed by a willow tree,
A leaf blew down and followed me;
I picked it up, it would not break;
My love passed by, he would not speak.

Both share a similar chorus:

Then give[bring] me back that one I love,
O! give, O! give him back to me;
If I only had that one I love,
How happy, happy should I be.

The "bring me back" chorus is usually repeated after every stanza, although in some versions it acts as a regular stanza. The version by Tom Willet segues in "Died for Love" but most UK versions don't have "Died for Love stanzas, except for one[3], but instead have "I wish" stanzas beginning: "I wish my heart" or "I feel he's like the weathercock." There's also a comparison stanza "My true love he's like a little bird."

The theme is very much part of the "Died for Love" songs: A young maid passes by a willow and a leaf falls down--she picks it up it will not break, her love goes by and does not speak. This obvious rejection of the maid by her lover is typical of the Died for Love songs. The maid thinks he has found another lover and wishes his heart was glass she could see if he loves her. In some versions since he's a sailor boy who left her and no longer cares for her.

Both the Sailor Boy/Willow tree versions are closely aligned to the 'Blue-Eyed Boy," the American counterpart which has a similar chorus with "blue eyed boy" added: "Bring me back my blue-eyed boy." The American versions are more diverse and have different "Died for Love" stanzas blended in.

The oldest extant version is Kidson's "Sailor Boy" broadside dated c.1890 (ref. Gardham[4]).

Sailor Boy- from The Frank Kidson Broadside Collection [c.1890]

My love is but a sailor boy
That sails across the deep blue sea,
He wears a mark up on his arm
To bring his memory back to me.

CHORUS: Give me back the one I love,
Give oh, give him back to me,
Give me back the one I love,
Then happy, happy I will be.

My love is like a little bird
That flies across from tree to tree,
And when he gets so far away,
You'll find he thinks no more of me.

Think of me and bear in mind,
A constant love is hard to find;
And when you get one good and true,
Never change the old one for the new.

The last stanza which is used as a short poem by itself is commonly found in Maiden's prayer a variant of Died for Love with the suicide that was popular in the UK since World War I and is still sung today. The opening stanza of Maiden's Prayer often features a Sailor or Soldier:

    A soldier came on leave one night,
    He found his house without a light,
    He went upstairs to go to bed,
    When a sudden thought came to his head.

This is from one of the earliest versions-- taken from a British World War I soldier by the father of Fred Cottenham, of Chiddingstone, Kent. It has the following common stanza with Blue-Eyed Boy/Sailor Boy/Willow tree:

   Now, all you maidens, bear in mind,
    A soldier's love is hard to find.
    But if you find one good and true,
    Never change the old love for the new.

This is the one clear association with Maiden's Prayer, a member of the Died for Love family, that has the suicide which resembles Butcher Boy.

This short love song with the Willow Tree/Sailor Boy openings probably originated in the UK by the early 1800s since it's guestimated to have been found in the US about the same time. There are less that ten independent versions[5] in the UK and only a few that are more than the chorus and thee stanzas long. As Steve Gardham has pointed out[6], the melody sung to Maiden's Prayer is the same standard melody sung for "Blue-Eyed Boy." This, and the common stanza, show the close relationship of the two songs.

R. Matteson 2017]

___________________________________

Footnotes:

1. "My Love He Is A Sailor Bold," sung by Miss Ross about 1907, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. (Grieg-Duncan 1085) The Greig-Duncan Folk Song Collection - Volume 8, page 424, by Patrick N. Shuldham-Shaw, ‎Emily B. Lyle - 2002. Nothing is known of the informant who I assume is from Aberdeenshire as most of the informants of Greig and Duncan were.
2. This version sung by Shandres, a gypsy singer of Kendal Westmorland, was published in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, July, 1909 from Christmas Eve and After by Thomas William Thompson. The MS is in the Broadwood Collection online and has been titled, "Willow Tree." Roud makes it clear that the four versions in Broadwood's MS are collected by Thompson, however Broadwood has been attributed in some notes as the collector. Three of the versions are from Shandres Petulengro family and have minor differences. The version published by Thompson in 1909 is a composite.
3. The Maiden's Prayer has one stanza in common with Willow Tree/Sailor Boy which will be covered near the end of the British & Other Versions headnotes.
4. Frank Kidson's broadside "The Sailor Boy," has been given a date of c.1890 by Gardham but it certainly could be twenty years older.
5. Three texts are, for example, versions by Shandres Petulengro's family members and another version from the same gypsy group that is also similar- these four versions constitute one independent version.
6. Steve Gardham has collected a number of versions of "Maiden's Prayer," including two from his family. He made the observation about the melody in an email but probably has posted it online as well. I assume the UK melody is also similar.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 23 Jun 17 - 01:39 PM

Hi,

I'm finished with "Rashy Muir/Will ye Gang, Love" and give these traditional full texts (no print version has been found):

A. "The Rashy Muir" sung by George F. Duncan of Glasgow about c.1875. From: The Greig-Duncan Folk Song Collection - Volume 8 - page 440, by Patrick N. Shuldham-Shaw, ‎Emily B. Lyle - 2002.
B. "For Love," sung by Willie Mathieson (1879-1958) of Ellon, Aberdeenshire about 1894. From a recording in the Collection- School of Scottish Studies; Track ID - 15020; Original Tape ID - SA1952.002.
C. "Rashy Muir," from Murison MS ff. 46-47, 7 verses, 1896. First stanza in Fairies and Folk: Approaches to the Scottish Ballad Tradition - page 272 by Emily B. Lyle - 2007.
D. "Rashie Moor," sung by Mrs. Grieve, of New Deer about 1907, collected by Greig, no tune. From: The Greig-Duncan Folk Song Collection, by Patrick N. Shuldham-Shaw, ‎Emily B. Lyle - 2002.
E. "Rashy Moor," composite, new stanzas 8-10 from Mrs Cruickshank, Greciehill, New Deer - collected by Greig. Stanzas 1-7 by Mrs. Greive. Greig-Duncan #1215E.
F. "Will Ye Gang Love?" sung by Andrew Robbie of Strichen, Aberdeenshire on February 3, 1960. Recorded by Prof. Kenneth Goldstein. From: School of Scottish Studies. Original Tape ID - SA1960.150.151.
G. "Wad ye Gang, Love and Leave me Noo?" sung by Isla St Clair of Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire in 1973. Learned from her mother, who got it from her mother. Recorded by Hamlish Henderson. An earlier recording was made in 1971 by Fred Kent. From: School of Scottish Studies, two recordings of St Clair: 1971, Original Tape ID - SA1971.195 and 1973, Original Tape ID - SA1973.016.
H. "Will Ye Gang, Love?" as sung by Archie Fisher on the album- "Will Ye Gang, Love." Topic 1976. From Archie Fisher's album- "Will Ye Gang, Love." Topic 1976, track 5. Re-release 1993, Green Linnet.

Here's a link to rough draft of headnotes: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/17e-will-ye-gang-love-or-rashy-muir.aspx

If anyone known of any other authentic traditional versions please let me know,

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 22 Jun 17 - 10:32 PM

Hi,

Now I'm wading 'cross a rushy moor, my 7E. Will Ye Gang Love, or, Rashy Muir

There don't seem to be many authentic traditional versions but there is at least an "artificial" version: When the fine Fife singer, Irene Riggs went into a record store in Kirkcaldy and asked "Do you have any Archie Fisher records?" to which the assistant replied, "Artificial records? No, we only sell real ones!" Both Riggs and Fisher sang "Will Ye Gang Love" which Archie learned while he lived at Torbain Farm Cottages, just outside Kirkcaldy in Fife.

So far my fav version is Isla St Clair's:

Wad ye Gang, Love and Leave me Noo? sung by Isla St Clair of Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire in 1971, 1973. Learned from her mother, who got it from her mother. Transcribed from recording by Hamlish Henderson, 1973. An earlier recording was made in 1971 by Fred Kent.

My love stands in yon chaumer door
Cambing[1] back his yellow hair
His curly locks I lang to see
I wonder if my laddie minds on me.

Chorus: Wad ye gang, love, and leave me noo?
Wad ye gang, love, and leave me noo?
Wad ye forsake your ain love true
To ga' off with a lassie that ye never knew?

As lang as my apron did bide doon
He followed me frae toon tae toon
But noo it's up abein[2] my knee
He passed by but kens nae me.

I wish, I wish, but I wish in vain,
O that I were a maid again,
But a maid again I will never be
Till an apple grows on a rodden[3] tree.

I wish, I wish my babe was born,
And sittin' on mather's knee
And I mysel was deid and gane
The long green growin' over me.

CHORUS: Oh he's gang, gang, he's left me noo
He's gang, gang, he's left me noo
He has forsook his ain love true
To ga' off with a lassie that he never knew?

1. combing
2. above
3. Rowan tree

Maybe someone can proof it since it was a quick listen.

Here is the first part of my headnotes:

[This is a traditional Scottish love song with the "abandoned heart-broken lover" theme which shares stanzas with the "Died for Love" songs. No extant print version has been found and I've dated this late 1700s to early 1800s and before c.1850. One of its two opening stanzas appeared in the c.1860 English broadside "I Am a Rover":

As I crossed over Dannamore," [yon dreary moor]
There I lost sight of my true love's door;
My heart did ache, my eyes went blind,
As I thought of the bonny lass I'd left behind.

In "I Am a Rover" the stanza is subordinate and appears as the fourth or fifth stanza. The appearance of this stanza in southern England shows the ballad has some circulation outside of Scotland and may have originated from a lost print version probably issued in Scotland.

Although the two titles "Will Ye Gang Love" and "Rashy Muir," are somewhat interchangeable, the "Rashy Muir" opening stanza, as collected by Greig-Duncan from the late 1800s and early 1900s, is considerably different than the standard "Will Ye Gang, Love" opening stanza:

Rashy Muir (opening stanza Grieg-Duncan D)

As I cam' thro' yon rashie moor
Fa spied I in my true love's door?
My hairt grew sair, and my eyes grew blin',
To see my bonnie love leave me ahin'.

This opening is essentially the same as the stanza printed in "I Am a Rover." Rashy[1], also rashie, is Scottish for rush, a type of tall grass-like plant that grows in the moor. Rushy (rashy) would be an adjective describing the rushes growing on the moor, a flat, often wet, lowland area unsuitable for housing. The standard Rashy Muir opening stanza told in 1st person can be translated from the Scottish:

As I was coming across the rushy moor,
I spied another lover in my true love's door;
My heart grew sore and my eyes grew blind,
To see my bonny love leaving me behind.

This opening stanza in Rashy Muir is considerably different in the various "Will Ye Gang Love" variants. In the "Will Ye Gang" opening stanza she admires her love's curly blond hair, as he stands by the door but she wonders if her love is true:

For Love (Aberdeenshite 1895)

My lovie stands in yon stable door
A combing doon his yellow hair.
His curly locks they enticed me
But I'll never tell you who is he.

The last two lines of B, Willie Mathieson's "For Love" are unique[2] and probably corrupt. The usual last lines of the "Will Ye Gang Love" opening are:

His curly locks I like to see
I wonder if my love minds on me[3].

In the Rashy Muir versions, the chorus is present, but its role may be not as a chorus but as a stanza, as in A. In the standard chorus the rejected lover sings: "Will you go and leave me now? (2X) Will you forsake you're own true love and go with a lass you never knew?" The chorus usually appears:

And will ye gang love and leave me noo
Will ye gang love and leave me noo?
Will ye forsake your own true love
And gang wi' a lass that you never knew?[4]

The questions posed by the rejected lover serve as a prediction of her/his fate. For she finds, as in the Died for Love songs, he has left her for another woman who he now takes on his knee. The other Died for Love stanzas reveal:

1) she is pregnant and wishes she was a maid again
2) that she wishes her babe could be born
3) that she wishes she was dead and buried under the green, green grass.
4) Upon her impending death, she instructs; 'Do dig a grave. . ." the standard Died For Love ending.

As in B after the opening stanza and chorus, many of the remaining stanzas are usually comprised of standard "Died for Love" stanzas with one or two other stanzas added from other sources. One of the stanzas from other sources is the 1770 broadside, The Unfortunate Swain, from which the following stanza is borrowed:

I set my back against an oak,
I thought it was a trusty tree,
But first it bent and then it broke
So did my false Love to me[5].

A, "The Rashy Muir" was sung by George F. Duncan of Glasgow about c.1875. It is considerably different than the standard versions sung today--there is no chorus, although the chorus is present, and it's sung from the male perspective. George F. Duncan, born 1860, was the son of William Duncan and brother of Rev. J. B. Duncan (of the Grieg-Duncan Collection). This was learned from his mother and copied down by George in an MS book. He was a school teacher in different parts of Scotland. This is sung from the man's perspective which the informant perhaps changed since it's usually sung by from a woman's perspective-- as are all the "Died for Love" songs[6]. The usual chorus is stanza 6, stanza seven is a floating stanza found in the "Waly, Waly" songs. Stanza 8 is a quite different take on the "Dig a grave" ending common in the "Died for Love" songs.

The Rashy Muir- learned by George F. Duncan from his mother's singing in 1875, Greig-Duncan #1215A

1. As I came through yon rashy moor
How spied I in my true love's door
My heart grew sair an my eyes grew blind
To think my bonnie love left me behind.

2. As we came through the water wan
The brig's being broken at yon mull dam
I boued my body an took her through
But alas she's gone an she's left me noo.

3. As we came our yon hill sae high
The nicht wis dark an my love took fleig
I took her in my arms twa
An we lay there till it wis day.

4. And in the morning when we arose
I helped her on wi her clothes
First her stockings an then her sheen
It was bit my duty when a wis dene.

5. But when I came in at yon town end
I saw another did my love attend
I took aff my hat an I said Hough hon
The best o my weel days are done.

6. O are ye gone lovey are ye gone
O are ye gone an left me noo
Wid ye forsake a' yere former vows
An break the heart o a lover true?

7. I lent my back against an oak
I thought it was a trusty tree
But first it bowed an then it break
And so has my false love to me.

8. Now since all my days are done,
I'll have it written on my grave stone,
Here lies a young man that died for love
Because his mistress wid not approve.

* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 22 Jun 17 - 10:24 AM

Hi,

I've finished Sheffield Park for now. I'm missing three traditional versions and one print version.

1. "The Young Man of Sheffield Park" printed by Evans of 42 Long Lane, London, c1794.
2. Gillington's Sheffield Park in her "Eight Hampshire Folk Songs (1907)
3. Russell, Traditional Singing in West Sheffield 1970-1972 (1977) Vol.2, sung by Bob Hancock.
4. Ruairidh Greig Collection (CECTAL A91-70) sung by John Taylor.

If anyone has one of these please post or provide link, TY.

There are about 18 traditional versions; all but three are here: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/british--other-versions-7c-sheffield-park.aspx The earliest record is 1886 when two fragmented stanzas appeared at the end of Died for Love.

See in main headnotes: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7c-sheffield-park-the-unfortunate-maid.aspx

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 20 Jun 17 - 02:31 PM

Hi,

Looks like I'm now in Sheffield Park, a pleasant change from all the salt water :) I need Gillington's Sheffield Park in her "Eight Hampshire Folk Songs (1907)" and any old traditional versions not in RV Williams site. Anyone?

Wrote these headnotes today and they may be a bit long:

[The British ballad, colloquially known as Sheffield Park, has at times been included as a member of Died for Love[1] but is a different ballad with a similar theme and several very similarly worded stanzas. An example of the similarly worded stanzas is obvious when comparing Butcher Boy with the opening of Sheffield Park. The opening stanza of the Pitts "Sheffield Park" broadside as well as the 2nd stanza, where the maid goes upstairs to bed, and the first half of 3rd stanza, the maid's response to her mistress-- are very similar to stanzas found in Butcher Boy, Died for Love E:

Sheffield Park (Pitts broadside[2])

1. IN Sheffield park, O there did dwell,
A brisk young lad, I lov'd him well,
He courted me my heart to gain,
He is gone and left me full of pain.

2. I went up stairs to make the bed,
I laid me down and nothing said,
My mistress came and to me said,
What is the matter with you my maid.

3. O mistress, mistress you little know,
The pain and sorrow I undergo,

The maid's mistress has become her mother in Butcher Boy:

Butcher Boy[3]

In London City where I did dwell,
A butcher boy I loved so well;
He's courted me my heart away
An' along with me he will not stay.

I go up-stairs to make my bed,
But nothing to my mother said;
My mother comes up-stairs to me saying,
"What's the matter, my daughter dear?"

"Oh! mother, mother! you do not know
What grief, and pain, and sorrow, woe—

These very similar stanzas are why Belden remarked in his 1940 headnotes to Butcher Boy[4]: "The location is Sheffield park in Pitts's broadside of that title, which comes closest of all British stall prints to the American ballad." This curious affinity between Butcher Boy (American) and Sheffield Park (English) suggest a common ancestry. However similar the openings are these facts remain: Sheffield Park has not been reported in North America and Butcher Boy is not usually found in tradition in the UK[]. The similarity with Butcher Boy ends after the 3rd stanza and although there is a letter-- it's a love letter sent by the maid to her false lover. The false young man's response to the maid's letter is fashioned from a parallel broadside used by the Died for Love family, the c.1686 Constant Lady and False-Hearted Squire:

17. "Did she think I so fond could be,
That I could fancy none but she?
Man was not made for one alone;
I took delight to hear her moan."

The maid dies of a broken heart and other stanzas from Constant Lady end the tragic love ballad.

The ballad story of Sheffield Park begins the common Died for Love theme of love and abandonment: a young man fair, or brisk young lad, who courts a young maid and when she falls in love with him, he "parts from her company." Her mistress sees the maid crying and offers to help by bringing her young man a letter. When he receives the letter he burns it and "Left her in grief to make her mourn." She cries, "O fatal death, come pity me, And ease me of my misery." In the more modern 1800s broadsides a new ending is added--when the mistress returns to the maid she finds her "cold as clay"-- dead from a broken heart. The mistress "gather'd the green grass for her bed/And a flowery pillow for her head/The leaves that blow from tree to tree/ Shall be a covering over thee." This burial is similar to the one in the broadside, Constant Lady, where the maiden prepares her funeral bed with leaves and flowers for a pillow.

These same stanzas are used in some versions of Died for Love and are especially important in some members of the larger "Died for love" family. Since 7B. "Love Has Brought Me To Despair" is derived from Constant Lady there will be stanzas in common. In 7H. She's like the Swallow the ending is similar to both Constant Lady and Sheffield Park. In the traditional versions of Sheffield Park after her lover burns her letter he says[]:

"Oh, foolish girl, to weep for me!
Think I could fancy none but thee?
The world was not made for one alone,
I take delight to hear thee moan."

Now consider the last stanza of "She's like the Swallow[]:

How foolish must that girl be   
For to think I love no other but she.
For the world was not meant for one alone,
The world was meant for every one.

Sheffield Park was first printed as "The Unfortunate Maid," as early as c.1760[] in a collection of songs titled Choice Spirits Delight, a copy of the first printing is unavailable. The ballad was printed in Choice Spirits Delight Part II in 1770 which may be viewed online[]. This version was reprinted in 1790 and later in Holroyd's Collection of Yorkshire Ballads. In 1820s broadsides the ending was reworked. Three new stanzas were added that were reworked from the last four stanzas of the c.1686 broadside "Constant Lady and the False-Hearted Squire," a parallel ballad used in some Died for Love ballads. "Constant Lady" was based in turn on the earlier broadsides "The Deceased Maiden Lover," and "The Faithlesse Lover" which were printed together on a single sheet by "the Assignes of Thomas Symcocke" about 1628. The nine stanza "Deceased Maiden Lover" is likely an expansion of the four stanza, "A Forlorn Lover's Complaint" (As I walked forth one summer's day) by lutenist Robert Johnson, c. 1611. The three antecedent ballads are written in a different form, a quatrain stanza with a two line chorus.

* * * *

The first extant printing of Sheffield Park was some 80 years later than Constant Lady and this original text is not associated with Constant Lady. It begins with stanzas also found similarly in Butcher Boy. My Aa, "The Unfortunate Maid," a ballad variant from 1770, is found in "The Choice Spirits Delight Part II: Being a Choice Collection of New Songs, Sung this and the Last Season, at Renelagh, Vauxhall, Sadler's Wells, the Theatres, and in the Politest Companies. . ." which was printed by Dicey & Company in Aldermary Church-Yard, Bow-Lane, London. An additional print about the same year, 1770, is found in 'The Humourist' (British Library 11621.e.6.(3)). This version may have been first appeared in Choice Spirits Delight: Part I dated c. 1760 however no copy is available and the date is uncertain. Aa was reprinted with minor changes as "The Unfortunate Maid of Sheffield," in Holroyd's Collection of Yorkshire Ballads, 1892. The 1770 Dicey version is given in full:

The Unfortunate Maid

IN Sheffield Park there liv'd and dwell'd,
A young man fair, I lov'd him wel[l];
He courted me my love to gain,
Left me in grief and full of pain;
And when that I did send for him,
He laugh'd and said how fond I'd been,
And from my company would part;
His words went bleeding to my [heart].

I went upstairs unto my bed,
I laid me down, but nothing said;
My mistress came and to me said;
Pray what's the matter with my maid?
O mistress, you do little know,
What grief and sorrow I undergo;
Come lay your hands upon my breast,
My panting heart can take no rest.

My mistress cries, what shall I do?
Some help I'll have for you just now;
No help, no help, no help I crave,
A young man sends me to the grave.
Take you this letter into your hand,
And read it that you may understand,
Carry it to him just now with speed,
Give it to him if he can read.

He took this letter immediately,
And read it o'er while she stood by:
Then he did this letter burn,
Lest her in grief to make her moan;
She wrung her hands and tore her hair,
Crying I shall fall into despair,
O fatal death, come pity me,
And ease me of my misery.

Subdivided stanzas 1, 2 and 4 are held in common with Butcher Boy. The first two lines of the last stanza "She wrung her hands" are held common with Sailor Boy. The theme of the maid abandoned by the false young man is that of the Died for Love songs and their extended family and is why Sheffield Park is my 7C. Subsequent broadside printings with additional minor changes titled, "The Young Man of Sheffield Park," were made by printers including J. Jennings of Water lane, Fleet street, London about 1790. The J. Jennings broadside, my Ba begins:

IN Sheffield park, there did live and dwell,
A young man fair, I lov'd him well,
He courted me my love to gain,
Left me in grief, and full of pain.

The location of the ballad is assumed to be a park in Sheffield, a city in the English county of South Yorkshire. the area is part of West Riding. The liner notes[] for Frank Hinchliffe's version provide details about the setting: "The Park district of Sheffield lies just to the east of the city centre and it is to this area that Frank had always understood the song to refer, although there is also a place called Sheffield Park in Sussex, and it must be said that this is the only example from the north of England in Roud's 81 entries. But Frank said that the song was well-known in his area. . ."

* * * *

In the 1820s new broadsides were printed in Seven Dials by both John Pitts (c, 1820) and Thomas Birt (c.1828) with a new three stanza ending reworked from the end of the c.1686 broadside, "Constant Lady":

15. The green ground served as a bed,
And flowers, a pillow for her head;
She laid her down, and nothing spoke:
Alas! for love her heart was broke.

16. But when I found her body cold,
I went to her false love, and told
What unto her had just befel:
"I'm glad," said he, "she is so well.

17. "Did she think I so fond could be,
That I could fancy none but she?
Man was not made for one alone;
I took delight to hear her moan."

18. O wicked man! I find thou art,
Thus to break a Lady's heart:
In Abraham's bosom may she sleep,
While thy wicked soul doth weep!

Clearly the false young man in Unfortunate Maid who burned the maid's letter had similar qualities false young man in Constant Maid. A broadside writer from Seven Dials recognized this in the 1820s and reworked Stanza 15 and 16 while stanzas 17 and 18 were kept intact. Here's modern Pitts version dated about 1820.:

Sheffield Park (Pitts broadside, c.1820)

1. IN Sheffield park, O there did dwell,
A brisk young lad, I lov'd him well,
He courted me my heart to gain,
He is gone and left me full of pain.

2. I went up stairs to make the bed,
I laid me down and nothing said,
My mistress came and to me said,
What is the matter with you my maid.

3. O mistress, mistress you little know,
The pain and sorrow I undergo,
Its put your hand on my left breast,
My panting heart can take no rest.

4. My mistress away from me did go,
Some help, some help I will have for you,
No help, no help, no help I crave,
Sweet William brought me to the grave.

5. So take this letter to him with speed,
And give it to him if he can read,
And bring me an answer without delay,
For he has stole my heart away.

6. She took the letter immediately,
He read it over while she stood by.
And soon he did the letter burn,
Leaving this maid to make her mourn.

7. How can she think how fond I'd be,
That I could fancy none but she,
Man was not made for one alone,
I take delight to hear her mourn.

8. Then she return'd immediately,
And found her maid as cold as clay;
Beware young maids don't love in vain,
For love has broke her heart in twain.

9. She gather'd the green grass for her bed,
And a flowery pillow for her head,
The leaves that blow from tree to tree,
Shall be a covering over thee.

10. O cruel man, I find thou art,
For breaking my own child's heart,
Now she in Abraham's bosom sleep,
While thy tormented soul shall weep.

A very similar broadside also title Sheffield Park was printed by Thomas Birt, also of Seven Dials about 1828 while he was still at 10 Great St. Andrew Street. Because stanzas from "Constant Lady" are the basis for 'Love has Brought Me," as well as "She's Like the Swallow" and are found in many "Died for Love" songs, many collectors have assumed that "Sheffield Park" is closely related to "Died for Love" when in fact Sheffield Park's antecedent, "The Unfortunate Maid" is not related at all to these ballads. As pointed out earlier subdivided stanzas 1, 2 and 4 of Unfortunate Maid are held in common with Butcher Boy. The first two lines of the last stanza "She wrung her hands" are held common with Sailor Boy. Although the associations are important, Constant Lady is not part of the core ballads of Died for Love but has shared stanzas with it and its extended family. Even though Constant Lady is the antecedent for the modern Sheffield Park ending and two members of the Died for Love extended family, Constant Lady and Died for Love are different ballads.

* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 19 Jun 17 - 03:49 PM

Hi,

TY Steve,

I've started all and finished most of the other Died for Love Family members. I'll just go through one by one. Sailor Boy was difficult.

I've roughed the headnotes in and proofed Sailor Boy once: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7a-the-sailor-boy-or-sweet-william.aspx There are two different headnote pages for USA/Canada and Britain.

http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/british--other-versions-7a-the-sailor-boy.aspx

http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/us--canada-versions-7a-the-sailor-boy-.aspx

Shouldn't be too much more work to finish them all. Comments suggestions welcome.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 17 Jun 17 - 04:10 PM

Well done, Richie. Highly detailed work as usual. Are there still areas of the 'Died for Love' family that need more work?


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 17 Jun 17 - 02:04 PM

Hi,

TY Steve.

I've listed the five oikotypes in: The "Sailor Boy" Ballad by Geographic Region with Oikotypes in Chronological Order. The study of Sailor Boy in finished but still in roughed form and can be read here: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7a-the-sailor-boy-or-sweet-william.aspx The study is long and I still need to proof it. There are over 150 complete versions listed. All 225 versions and fragments are found in US/Canada Version or British and Other Versions. Comments welcome.

I'm including the short Conclusions section below:

Some Conclusions
"Sailor Boy," or, "Sweet William" is a traditional ballad derived from print that was popular in the UK and North America and is still sung today. The print versions have one stanza in common (the letter writing/song writing stanza) with Died for Love and additional stanzas have been borrowed especially the ending "Go Dig a grave" stanza. The association seems to be brought about by a similar melody and the "letter writing/song writing" stanza which acts as a trigger to include the associated Died for Love stanzas which follow. Several versions in the UK (Hollings/Waterson) and the US (Kittredge/Eames) have the suicide by hanging associated with the Butcher Boy/Maiden's Prayer and earlier versions of Died for Love. Died for Love, B, The Cruel Father is about an apprentice who is pressed to sea by the Cruel Father and becomes a sailor aboard a man-of-war. There may be an early association between Sailor Boy and Cruel Father but they are different songs.

The extant print versions seem to stem from an unknown missing English (London) print of c. 1680-1718 which was used by John Gay for this recreation "Black-Eyed Susan" in 1720. Further evidence of this ballad is found in two traditional archaic versions of C from the US, one dated 1824 which would seem to be some of the original stanzas of this early missing print. Identifiers include "murmuring river side" and "jovial sailors." By the late 1700s and early 1800s the ballad was printed with different opening stanzas, the popular Irish "Early, early, in the spring" of A, the Scottish "Sailor's trade" of B, and the English "Down by some crystal river side" of C. Twenty or thirty years later a new broadside, D, was printed with the "Sailor's life is a merry life" opening similar to B. D became popular in the mid-1800s to early 1900s in England and was widely collected. C, the presumed oldest print version, was exported to the US and enjoyed limited circulation in Appalachia. C disappeared in England save for one extant version collected in 1907. These ballad types have been labeled Oikotypes A-D, each having specific identifiers. The ballad is presumed to have come to North America during the US Colonial Period which would be the mid-1700s. The versions in the US retain the standard print openings of A-C but have new identifiers associated with a stanza (The colour of amber) from the 1800 Scottish "Sailing Trade" which became "Black/Dark is the color of my true loves hair." In the US a new "Black is the Color" stanza was developed with the two last lines:

Oh, if ever he returns it will give me great joy,
For none will I have but my sweet soldier boy. [Cassidy, Kentucky, 1937]

This new variant found in the US has been labeled Oikotype E, and includes new identifiers such as "main/Spain" and "Rocky Isle/rocky Island." The "Black is the Color" stanza is frequently secondary to an opening derived from Oikotype B, and in the US it usually begins, "A sailor's/soldier's life is a dreary/weary life." The new identifiers of E appear to be quite old[] and were either changed in the US or came from a missing print in the UK.

This popular ballad has been joined with a number of ballads/songs and composites were formed. Most involve songs from the Died for Love family and are listed above along with the Oikotypes by Geographic Region. One composite, a song derived from the "Captain, captain" stanza, is called "Sailor on the Deep Blue Sea." This composite, my 7Aa, originated in the US southeast during the early 1900s and the version by the Carter Family recorded in 1928 became the standard which entered tradition.

The total number of "Sailor Boy" ballads in this study is about 225 and represents a good portion of the extant printed and collected versions. There are still quite a few missing-- some were never printed in full or only listed without text, while others are inaccessible, either in collections or obscure sources. Enough versions were available to reach some conclusions and establish the ballads types.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 15 Jun 17 - 04:15 PM

I'm sure you already know this but the writing stanza is also found in the 'I am a Rover' variants of the Night Visit this side of the pond.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 15 Jun 17 - 01:35 PM

Hi,

This completes the study of fundamental oikotypes of Sailor Boy. Oikotype E is found in the US south and Mid-West and is not derived from any known printed versions. Here are D and E:

Oikotype D: English. It begins similarly to B, with the variation on the first line, "A sailor's life is a merry life," and is represented by the later broadside, "Sailor Boy and his Faithful Mary." D also has the stanza beginning, "Four-and-twenty sailors, in a row" which is found in English tradition. The ships that Mary hails are the "Queen's ship(s)," the sailor is "sweet William" and he was last seen and presumed dead on the "green island." The easiest identifier is found in the last lines where Mary flings her body into the deep-- "in her Williams arms to lay fast asleep." This represents a more recent (mid1800s- early 1900s) English tradition and is easily identified by its first and last lines.

The print text of D dates back to as early as 1819 to 1844 when the broadside "Sailor Boy and his Faithful Mary" was issued by Pitts, a printer at Wholesale Toy and marble war[e]house. 6 Great st Andrew street 7 dils [sic] London. Additional broadsides were printed included one by J. Harkness of Preston between 1840-1860. The first known extant traditional version was published by F.L. in 1862 under the title, "Sailor Boy," see the article in The Monthly Packet of evening readings for younger members of the English Church, January--June 1862, London, by John and Charles Mozley.

Sailor Boy and his Faithful Mary- Oikotype D (print)

A sailor's life is a merry life:
They rob young women of their heart's delight,
Leaving them behind to sigh and mourn:
And never know when they will return.

Four-and-twenty sailors, in a row;
And my sweet William cuts the brightest show.
He is proper, tall, genteel with all,
If I don't have him I'll have none at all.

Father, bring me a little boat
That I may on the ocean float,
And every Queen's ship that I pass by
I may enquire for my sailor boy."

She had not sailed on the deep
When a queen's ship she chanc'd to meet.
You sailors all, pray tell me true,
Does my sweet William sail among your crew?

O no, fair lady, he is not here,
For he is drowned, I greatly fear.
On yon green island as we pass by
There we lost sight of our sailor boy.

Then she sat down for to write a song,
She wrote it freely and she wrote it long
At every verse she dropt a tear
Saying at the bottom, I have lost my dear.

She wrung her hands and tore her hair,
Jut like a woman in great despair,
Her little boat against a rock did run:
Saying, how can I live now my William's gone.

She wrung her hands and tore her hair,
Jut like a woman in great despair,
She flung her body into the deep
In her William's arms to lay fast asleep.

The last two stanzas have the same first line while Mary, identified by the title, is not not named in the body of the text. As pointed out by F.L. who published a traditional version in 1862, the last stanza offers a miracle reunion of the lovers: "Surely the last verse but one in the history of this nautical Evangeline, while the most absurd from its utter impossibility, is almost pathetic in its conceit." Here's the text in full, which is missing the opening stanza:

There's five-and-twenty all in a row,
And William he is the fairest show;
He is both handsome, genteel, and tall:
I'll have my William, else none at all.

"O Father! Father! build me a boat,
That on the ocean I may float;
And every king-ship that I pass by,
I will inquire for my sailor-boy."

I had not sailed far upon the deep,
Before a king-ship I chanced to meet:
"O jolly sailor, come tell me true,
If my sweet William's along with you?"

"Oh no, fair lady, he is not here,
For he is drowned, I greatly fear.
The other night, when the wind blew high,
It was then you lost your young sailor-boy."

She sat her down, and she wrote a song;
She wrote it wide, and she wrote it long;
At every line she shed a tear,
And at every verse she cried, "William dear!''

She wrung her hands, and she tore her hair,
Just like some lady in deep despair;
She plunged her body into the deep—
In the sailor's arms she lies fast asleep.

One of the most famous versions of D was collected by W. Percy Merrick from Henry Hills of Lodsworth, Sussex, in 1899, and was first published in the Folk Song Journal, vol.I, [issue 3], p. 266. It begins with the standard opening:

A sailor's life is a merry life.
They rob young girls of their heart's delight,
Leaving them behind to sigh and mourn.
They never know when they will return.

Cecil Sharp collected a full version titled, "Sweet William," which was sung by Tom Sprachlan at Hambridge, Somerset in September of 1903. [Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) (CJS2/10/28)] It's clear that D was very popular around the turn of the century in England and that it replaced C which was exported years earlier and had virtually disappeared in England. D, however was not popular in Scotland, or Ireland, and never had an effect on the versions already established in North America (see only a single stanza from Creighton). Traditional versions stay close to the broadside text except for the added Died for Love ending stanza.

Some Identifiers of Oikotype D
1) "A sailor's life is a merry life"
2) has stanza, "Four-and-twenty sailors, in a row"
3) sweet William
4) "Queen's ship" but varies
5) Has same first two lines beginning "She wrung her hands" in two different stanzas
6) ends, "in her William's arms to lay fast asleep."

Sailor Boy and his Faithful Mary- Oikotype D

1. A sailor's life is a merry life:
They rob young women of their heart's delight,
Leaving them behind to sigh and mourn:
And never know when they will return.

2. Four-and-twenty sailors, in a row;
And my sweet William cuts the brightest show.
He is proper, tall, genteel with all,
If I don't have him I'll have none at all.

3. Father, bring me a little boat
That I may on the ocean float,
And every Queen's ship that I pass by
I may inquire for my sailor boy."

4. She had not sailed on the deep
When a queen's ship she chanced to meet.
You sailors all, pray tell me true,
Does my sweet William sail among your crew?

5. O no, fair lady, he is not here,
For he is drowned, I greatly fear.
On yon green island as we pass by
There we lost sight of our sailor boy.

6. Then she sat down for to write a song,
She wrote it freely and she wrote it long
At every verse she dropped a tear
Saying at the bottom, "I have lost my dear."

7. She wrung her hands and tore her hair,
Jut like a woman in great despair,
Her little boat against a rock did run:
Saying, how can I live now my William's gone.

8. O father, father, come dig my grave
Dig it wide both long and deep
And on my tombstone put two turtle doves
So the world might see that I died for love.

9. She wrung her hands and tore her hair
Just like a lady in deep despair
She flung her body down in the deep
In her true love's arms she fell fast asleep.

* * * *

Oikotype E: US Mid-West and South. This oikotype is not based on any print version but has evolved from a stanza found in Sailing Trade c.1800:

5. The colour of amber is my true love's hair
His red rosy cheeks doth my heart ensnare
His ruby lips are soft, and with charms.
I've lain many a night in his lovely arms.

This stanza is a description by the maid of her Sailor Boy to the Captain so that he may determine if he's seen the Sailor Boy or knows his whereabouts. The order of the text in the first line was changed and has become "Dark/Black is the color of my true love's hair." By placing the stanza first, the variant becomes a version of Oikotype E and several versions are titled "Black is the color." The earliest extant version with "Dark/Black is the color" stanza first was written down by William Larken from Mrs. C. Froyaughehand of Cincinnati, Ohio in 1863 [from Ruth Ann Musick-The Old Album of William A. Larkin; JAFL Vol. 60, 1947]. It is titled, "Sailler[sic] Boy" but the placement of the stanza is first:

Dark was the coler of my true loves hair
His eyes resembled a lady fair
For no one else can give me joy
None will I have but a sweet sailler boy.

Here are two other early examples collected in the US in the early 1900s.

Brown was the color of my true love's hair,
His cheeks resembled a lily's fair.
If ever he returns it will give me joy,
For none can I wed but my sweet sailor boy.
   [2nd stanza, Belden A, 1909 from Mary Van Wormser of the West Plains High School, MO]

Black is the color of my true love's hair,
His cheeks are as red as the roses fair.
If he would return it would give me joy,
For none will I have but my sweet sailor boy.
   [1st stanza, Sailor's Sweetheart- Missouri, collected in 1928 by Randolph]

Compare to the standard 1st stanza of the different folk song "Black is the Color" sung and popularized by Niles:

Dark is the color of my sweetheart's hair;
His cheeks are like some roses fair;
The prettiest face and neatest hands,
I love the ground whereon he stands.
[August 1929, collected by Mellinger Henry from Mary E. King, in Gatlinburg Tennessee.]

The first two lines are essentially the same. In the earlier examples of Oikotype E, the last two lines are virtually the same:

If he would return it would give me joy,
For none will I have but my sweet sailor boy.

Oikotype E, popular in the mid-west US, has the "Dark/Black is the color" first stanza and uses that as its opening replacing the openings stanza of Oikotypes A-D. The remaining stanzas are standard with the "Died fof Love" ending stanza. Another unique stanza associated with Oikotype E follows:

She hadn't been sailing far on the main,
She spied three ships come in from Spain;
She hailed each captain as he drew nigh,
And of him she did inquire of her sweet sailor boy.
    [William H. Landreth's Civil War diary, 1865]

Some Identifiers of Oikotype E
1) Black/Dark is the color
2) bring me joy/sweet sailor boy
3) sailing on the main/ three ships from Spain
4) rocky isle (island)
5) drowned in the gulf
6) She called for a chair
7) sweet William (sweet Willie)

Black is the Color- Oikotype E

1. Black is the color of my true love's hair
His cheeks are like some roses fair
For no one else can give me joy,
None will I have but my sweet sailor boy.

2. Oh father oh father build me a boat
That on the ocean I may float
And every ship that I pass by
I will inquire for my sweet sailor boy

3. Just as she was crossing the main
She spied three ships all out of Spain
And as the captain he drew nigh
She inquired for her sweet sailor boy.

4. "Oh captain, captain tell me true
Does my Sweet William stay with you
Oh tell me quick and give me joy
For none will I have but my sweet sailor boy.

5. "Oh no dear lady, he is not here
He is drowned in the gulf I fear.
Near yon rocky isle as we passed by
There is where we lost your sweet sailor boy."

6. She run her boat against a rock
I thought the lady's heart was broke
She wrung her hands and tore her hair
Like a lady all in despair.

7. She called for a chair to sit upon
A pen and ink to write it down
And at the end of every line she shed a tear
And at the end of every verse cried, "Oh my dear."

8. It's dig my grave both wide and deep
Place a marble tombstone at my head and feet.
And on my breast a turtle dove
To testify that I died for love.

The foundation of Oikotype E is William Larkin's 1863 version. Randolph A is another full version. Some versions, with the identifiers of Oikotype E that have "Black is the color" as a secondary stanza (not the first stanza) also have other opening stanzas from A-D. In the US there's a blending of versions with the "drowned in the gulf," "main/Spain" and "joy/sailor boy" identifiers. The primary opening of versions with "Black is the color" as a secondary stanza is "dreary life" ("cruel life") associated with Scottish B. Following are some versions of Oikotype E, most have "Black is the Color" as the first stanza:

Sailler Boy- Mrs. Froyaughehand (OH) 1863 Larkin
Sailor Boy- Ada Belle Cowden (MO) 1909 Belden B
Sailor's Trade- Mary Van Wormser (MO) 1909 Belden C
Sailor Boy- A. K. Moore (NC) c.1915 Greer LV4
Sailor Boy- Mrs. Thomas (MO) 1928 Randolph A
Soldier Lover- Mary King (TN) 1929 Henry A
Black Is the Color- Cassity (KY) 1937 Lomax
Black is the Color- woman (MO) c.1956 Godsey
Sailor Boy- May Kennedy McCord (MO) c.1958 Beers/Max Hunter D
Black is the Color- Mrs. Bobbie Barnes (MO) 1958 Hunter B
Sweet Soldier Boy- Lee Monroe Presnell (NC) c.1961 Paton
My True Sailor Boy- Susie Daley (OK) pre1962 Moores
Soldier Boy- Buna Hicks (NC) 1966 Burton/Manning
Boatman, Boatman- O.B. Campbell (OK) 1971 Hunter F

It's apparent that Oikotype E is fairly old (guestimated as late 1700s early 1800s) and that some of the identifiers ("main/Spain" and "joy/sailor boy") originated in the US shortly after the ballad was brought over since they are not found in the UK.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 14 Jun 17 - 11:19 AM

Hi,

This is Sailor Boy, Oikotype C, which is the oldest text. The original broadside, as reflected in two archaic US versions and the lines from John Gay in 1720, is missing. The English broadsides on c.1810 represent a secondary reduction and Oikotype C is based largely on this reduction. There are 10 extant versions, one from England and the rest from North America. Here are two short excerpts from my website which gives all the texts in full:

* * * *

Oikotype C: Originally English then English and Irish. The earliest known print begins "Down by a crystal river side" and is represented by Ca, "The Sailor Boy." ("Down by a christal river side") from Merry Songs No. 15, printed by J. Evans, London, c1810, Cb, "The Maid's Lament for her Sailor Boy," a London broadside by J. Catnatch printer dated between 1813 and 1838 and Cc, "Sailor Boy" by London printer Pitts dated between 1819 and 1844. There is no significant difference in text between the three extant print versions. These prints are regarded as a secondary reduction of an earlier, largely unknown[], archaic English print.

The opening stanza with its pastoral setting is reminiscent of the 2nd stanza of the 1686 broadside, "Constant Lady and the False-Hearted Squire"-- widely borrowed by singers of the Died for Love songs. The older English print is only known by three lines of text from a missing broadside that was used by John Gay in 1720 for his recomposed ballad on the Sailor Boy theme, "Black Eyed Susan." The archaic identifiers "Sweet William" and "jovial sailors, tell me true" of "archaic" Oikotype C can therefore be considered older than A or B and the unknown print is dated c.1680-c.1718. The C Oikotype has the French ships identifier found in the Irish A which is presumed to have been borrowed from "archaic" C. The fact that versions of C were collected in America and that only one extant version was collected in the UK means that while Oikotype C virtually disappeared in the UK, it has already been brought to America probably during the Colonial Period. This is further evidence of the antiquity of C which had been replaced by D in England by the mid-to-late 1800s.

As far as the known print versions, there are the three lines from John Gay and three nearly identical broadsides (Ca will suffice):

Black-Eyed Susan: A Ballad (John Gay, 1720- print)

4    Oh! where shall I my true love find!
5 Tell me, ye jovial sailors, tell me true,
6    If my sweet William sails among the crew?

Here's Ca, "The Sailor Boy," from the collection, "Merry Songs," No. 15, printed by J. Evans, London, dated c.1810. This represents a secondary reduction of C, with "crystal" replacing "murmuring" and Jemmy" replacing "William":

15. The Sailor Boy (print)

1. Down by a christal river side,
Where silver streams did sweetly glide,
I heard a fair maiden making her moan,
How can I live now my Jemmy's gone.

2. Go fetch me some little boat
That on the ocean I may float,
Thro' the French ships as they pass by
Enquiring for my sailor boy.

3. She had not sailed long on the deep
Before five sail of the French ships she did meet,
Come tell me ye jovial ship's crew,
If my true love sails along with you.

4. O no fair lady he is not here,
For he is drown'd I greatly fear,
For on yonder green island as I past by
There we did lose your poor sailor boy.

5. She wrung her hands and tore her hair
Just like a woman in despair,
Her boat against the rocks she run,
O I ne'er can live now my Jemmy's gone.

6. So come ye maids who dress in black,
That for a sailor boy you do lack,
With a black topmast and sails so wide,
Which parted me and my sailor boy.

7. Down by the silent shady grove,
There will I mourn for my true love,
And tell the small birds all my grief,
For they alone afford some relief.

Gay's text corresponds to the last two lines of Stanza 3 of the "Sailor Boy" broadside by Evans. The traditional record of Oikotype C is small and includes one excellent version from England collected by R.V. Williams in 1907.

* * * *

Nine versions represent the traditional record of the opening stanza ("murmuring river side") of Oikotype C. Many of the later US versions have only the 1st stanza and no other archaic identifiers. Other identifiers are "jovial crew," "jovial ship's crew" or "jovial sailors" and the name, "Jimmy" which are found rarely found together. One such archaic version is "Sailor Boy" as sung by Edward Hovington of Quebec who learned it from an Irishman in Canada in 1847. Even though Hovington's version is missing the main stanza ("Down by the murmuring river side") it still qualifies as a version of Oikotype C. The rational is this: "Archaic" Oikotype C, the oldest version originally had two opening stanzas (murmuring river side/Early early) and was later rewritten. One rewrite was Oikotype A printed in Ireland in the 1770s (see Goggin) which removed the "murmuring river side" stanza and "Early early" became the new opening stanza. Evidence of this apparent in two versions from the Untied States, the oldest being the 1824 "Mermuring[sic] Side" which begins:

1. Down by one murmuring river side
Where purling streams do gently glide
I herd a fair maid making her moan
How can I live and my true love gone?

2. It was early, early all in the spring
He went on board for to serve his king
The raging seas and the winds blew high,
Which parted me and my sailor boy.

and also Cox B from West Virginia:

1 Way down on Moment's river side,
The wind blew fair a gentle glide;
A very pretty maid sat there a-moan,
"O what shall I do? My true love's gone.

2 "If ten thousand were enrolled,
My love would make the brightest show,
The brightest show of every one;
I'll have my true love or else have none.

3 "It was early in the spring,
He went on sea to serve his king;
The day was clear, the wind blew fair,
Which parted me and my dearest dear.

The Goggin Irish print of c.1770 removed "murmuring river side" and "Early early" became the opening. This change was kept in subsequent Irish prints and it also became part of Irish tradition. The English print versions published in 1810 (see Ca above) also reflected a change: "murmuring" was changed to "crystal" and the 'Early, early" opening, now printed in Ireland, was removed. "Sweet William," as reflected in John Gay's adaptation, was changed in this secondary reduction to "Jemmy" (Jimmy). Assuming this change occurred in the late 1700s and early 1800s as the two archaic US versions predict, this would mean that the original unknown Oikotype C was printed in the late 1600s to early 1700s with "murmuring river side" and "early early" as the second or third stanza. John Gay's recreation, which represents the unknown print version, used the common ballad name, "Sweet William," as well as "jovial sailors," another commonplace in sailor songs. Since the original print of the C Oikotype is unknown, reproducing it here would be more speculation. It is best represented by the 1824 traditional version Murmuring Side. The ur-ballad that follows will represent the second reduction found in the London broadsides of c.1810 with the "early, early" stanza removed. Some elements of "archaic" C will appear in the identifiers and ur-ballad.

Some Identifiers of Oikotype C
1) "murmuring river side," "moment's river side" then "crystal river side"
2) Originally "William" (as John Gay's "Sweet William") then "Jemmy" or "Jimmy"
3) "greatest show"
4) "jovial ship's crew" "jovial sailors" "jovial crew"
5) "fetch me some boat"
6) Down to some/a silent "shady grove"

Murmuring River Side-- Oikiotype C (secondary reduction)

1. Down by yon murmurin' river side
Where silver streams do gently glide
I heard a fair maid making her moan
"How can I live now my Jimmy's gone?"

2. "His rosy cheeks, his coal-black hair,
Has drawn my heart all in a snare;
His ruby lips so soft and fine,
Ten thousand times I've thrust in mine."

3. "And if ten thousand were in a row,
My love would make the brightest show,
The brightest show of every one;
I'll have my love or I'll have none."

4. Go fetch me some little boat
That on the ocean I may float,
Thro' the French ships as they pass by
Inquiring for my sailor boy.

5. She had not sailed long in the deep
Before some French ship she chanced to meet
Come jovial sailors come tell me true
If my young Jimmy sails along with you?

6. "No, no, fair maiden, he is not here,
For he is drownded poor soul I fear,
On yon green islands as we passed by
It was there we lost our young sailor boy."

7. She wrung her hands, she tore her hair
Much like some woman in despair,
Her boat up against some rock did run,
"How can I live now Jimmy's gone?"

8. The wind did blow and the waves did roll,
Which washed his body to the shore;
She viewed him well in every part,
With melting tears and bleeding heart.

9. With pen and ink she wrote a song,
She wrote it large, she wrote it long;
On every line she dropped a tear,
And every verse cried, "O my dear!"

10. So come ye maids who dress in black,
That for a sailor boy you do lack,
With a black topmast and sails so wide,
Which parted me and my sailor boy.

11. Down by the silent shady grove,
There will I mourn for my true love,
And tell the small birds all my grief,
For they alone afford some relief.

12. Six weeks from then this maid was dead,
And on her breast this letter laid:
"Go dig my grave both wide and deep,
And strew it well with roses sweet.

13 "Plant by my side a willow tree,
To many years wave over me,
And on my breast a turtle dove,
To tell the world I died for love."

The broadsides and Flint's version end with stanza 11. The 1824 tradition version from the ship's log has:

O this fair maid on a sick bed fell
And for a doctor loudly did call,
My pain is great and I cannot live
And she descended unto her grave.

Most of the US versions have the "Died for Love" stanza added on as in 12 and 13. Stanza 8 (viewing his dead body) is rare and found only in one other version. Stanza 10 is from the broadsides and is a poorly constructed "sailor's mourning" stanza. Jemmy (Jimmy) is retained throughout as in the broadsides and the RV Williams English version. There are two archaic US versions with both opening stanzas which reflect "archaic" C, the missing broadside.
* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 13 Jun 17 - 05:34 PM

Hi,

Here's the excerpt with Oikotype B, Scottish:

By adding traditional versions to the 10 stanza print version obviously it will add to out ur-ballad since "Sailing Trade" by Robert Chree of Aberdeenshire is a 11 full stanza. Two changes from print are obvious: 1) The traditional "What king of clothes does you Billie wear?" stanza replaces the "colour of amber" stanza and 2) the "Sailors mourn in black" stanza is missing and needs to be added. Christie's 1876 version has at least one stanza from his mother was probably supplemented by print stanzas. A traditional record is wanting of the two "on the lea" stanzas found in Christie's text. The traditional version by Maggie Stewart uses the "What a name" stanza (Two Hearts) and those 6 lines can't be included in the ur-ballad. The Died for love ending is rare in Scottish versions. Usually she throws herself on a rock and is presumed to drown. In Lucy Stewart's version she uses a rope:

She thrust her head up into a rope,
"Oh but where can I live since my Billie's gone?"

The main versions used in the UR ballad were the print version and Robert Chree's version.

Some Identifiers:

1) Sailing Trade is a weary trade (A sailor's life is a weary life)
2) Billie (sometimes Willie or William)
3) The grass does grow on every lea
4) The colour of amber
5) Father, Father build me a boat
6) man-of-war (tradition) also French ships
7) Thousands, thousands in a room (print)

The Sailing Trade (Ur-ballad Oikotype B)

1. The sailing trade is a weary life;
It's bereaved me of my heart's delight,
And left me here in tears to mourn,
Still waiting for my Billie's return.

2. It's where he's gone I cannot tell,
Nor in whose arms my love doth dwell,
But who enjoys him at this same time
Enjoys the fairest of all mankind.

3. The grass grows green where my love's been,
The little birds sing in ilka tree,
The nightingale in her cage doth sing
To welcome Willie in the spring.

4. Thousands, thousands all in a room,
My love he carries the brightest bloom;
He surely is some chosen one,
I will have him, or I'll have none.

5. The grass does grow on every lea,
The leaf doth fall from every tree;
How happy that small bird doth cry,
That has her true love by her lie.

6. Father, father, build me a boat,
That on the ocean I may float;
And at every ship that doth pass by,
I may enquire for my sailor boy.

7. She had not sail-ed long on the deep,
Till a man-of-war ship she chanced to meet,
"Oh captain, captain, pray tell me true,
Is my love Billie on board with you?

8. The colour of amber is my true love's hair
His red rosy cheeks doth my heart ensnare
His ruby lips are soft, and with charms,
I've lain many a night in his lovely arms.

9. I doubt, I doubt, and I rather fear,
That your dear Billie he's not here,
It was just last night, as the wind blew high,
It was then we lost a fine sailor boy."

10. The sailors they were all dressed in black,
The sailors they were right mournfully,
With their silken screen on their topmast high,
The wind did blow with a pleasant gale.

11. This fair maid she went to her home,
She has called for paper, and she has penned this song,
At ilka word she did shed a tear,
And at ilka line cried, "Billie dear!"

12. As she was walking on the quay,
A row of sailors she chanced to see,
With their jackets blue and their troosers white,
Just mind her on her heart's delight.

13. She wrang her hands, she tore her hair,
Just like a lover in despair,
Oot owre a rock herself she's thrown,
"How could I live, and my Billie gone?"

14. "Go dig me a grave so wide and so deep,
And cover me over with lilies so sweet
And in the middle a turtle dove
To let the world know I died for love.

The "Colour of Amber stanza" has been supplanted in tradition by the dialogue between the maid and the captain resulting in a number of variants which appear similarly:

What kind of clothes does your Billie wear?
What is the colour of your Billie's hair?
His jacket's blue and his troosers white,
And the colour o' his hair is my heart's delight.

* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 13 Jun 17 - 12:04 PM

Hi,

Here are the two ur-ballads (composites) of Sailor Boy for the Irish Oikotype A. One is print and one is tradition. This is a reduced excerpt from my site:

Oikotype A: Irish. Begins with "Early, early in the spring" or "Early, Early All in the Spring," and is represented by the following Irish broadsides:
1)"Sailor Boy" by Goggins c.1770,
2) "A New Song call'd the Young Lady's Lamentation for the Loss of her True Love," printed by P. Brereton in Dublin. c.1867
3) "The Constant lover and her sailor boy" from Ballad Sheet Scrapbook I: part IV, from the Collection of Patrick Weston Joyce (1827- 1914) an Irish music collector; dated c. 1880 by chronology presented.
4) "The Young Lady's Lamentation for the Loss of her True Love" ("The night is long and I can find no rest") broadside by E.C. Yeats Cuala Press County Dublin, 1909.

The opening two lines (and sometimes the first stanza) are also found in the different ballad, "Early, Early in the Spring" (Laws M1 Roud #152) whose antecedent is the late 17th century Seaman's Complaint for his Unkind Mistress, of Wapping. See those opening lines also in Croppy Boy, which is an adaptation. What need to be made clear is: The Seaman's Complaint is not part of Sailor Boy and only has the opening lines in common-- they are different ballads.

The Seaman's Complaint for his Unkind Mistress, of Wapping.
To The Tune Of I love you dearly, I love you well, etc.   
Licens'd and Enter'd according to Order, etc.

When I went early in the Spring
on board a Ship to serve the King,
I left my dearest Love behind,
who said her heart for e're was mine.

Most versions use the first lines but several use the complete measure and shift to Sailor Boy text in stanza 2. Here's a composite of the four broadsides:

1. It was early, early all in the spring,
   When my love William went to serve the King (Queen),
   The raging seas and wind blew nigh (high),
   Which parted me and my sailor boy.

   [All that grieved him and troubled his mind,
    Was the leaving of his dear girl behind.]

2. The night is long and I can find no rest,
    The thoughts of my Willie runs in my breast,
    I'll search those green wood and valleys wide,
    Still hoping my true love to find.

3. Come make then for me a little boat
    For its on the ocean I mean to float,
    To view the French fleet as they pass by,
    And I'll still inquire for my sailor boy.

4. She had not sailed more then a day or too,
    When a French vessel came in my view.
    Oh Captain Captain tell me true
    Does my true love William sail on board with you?

5. "What sort of clothes did your Willie wear,
    Or what colour was your true lover's hair?"
    "A short blue jacket all bound with green,
    And the colour of amber was my true love's hair."

6. Indeed fair lady, he is not here,
    But he is drowned I gently fear,
    On yon green Island as we passed by,
    We lost five more and your sailor boy.

7. She wrong her hands tore her hair,
    Just like a lady in deep despair,
    Oh happy, happy is the girl she cried,
    That has her true love drowned by her side.

    [Her boat she flung against the rocks
    Crying, "What shall I do since my true love's lost?"]

    [Her little boat against a rock did run,
    Saying, "What shall I do when my Willie's gone?"]

8. I'll tell my dream to the hills high;
    And all the small birds as they fly,
    "Oh, happy, happy is the girl," she cried,
    "That has her true-love by her side."

9. She called for a pen and ink and paper too,
    That she might write her last adieu,
    At every letter she shed a tear,
    At every line she cried Willy dear.

10. Come all you seamen that sails along
    And all you boatmen that follow on.
    From the cabin boy to the main mast high,
    You must mourn in black for my sailor boy.

Stanza 2 is not standard but it corroborated in some traditional versions.

* * * *

The "early early" opening is identified with the fundamental Irish version. Two versions from America dated before 1850 have the "Early, Early" stanza. Both the Aussie version and the Tristan de Cuhna version found in the 1900s have the "Early, early" opening. The Sailor is usually "Willie" except for two exported versions which have "Jimmy" as found in Oikotype C. The letter writing stanza found in the "Early, Early" broadsides is rare in early Irish tradition. The suicide found in the Hollings Lincolnshire version is the same found in Butcher Boy and seems to be unique (or borrowed from Butcher Boy) so it will not be part of an ur-ballad representing that Oikotype A. In Kennedy's Wexford version there's also the rare "because she couldn't be a sailor's wife" suicide and a stanza found in Sharp's 100 English Folk Songs: "The grass it groweth on ev'ry lea/ The leaf it falleth from ev'ry tree/How happy that small bird doth cry/That hath her true love close to her side." This mirrors stanza 8 of the broadsides and both are ornamental additions from other sources although they will be included here. The "Sailors all in row" stanza found in only two exported versions and also found in Scottish print/tradition is not included. There's more variation among the "What kind of clothes" stanza(s) than the other standard stanzas. The common addition from Died for Love is the ending stanza, "Go dig my grave."

Some Identifiers:

1) Early Early (all) in the Spring
2) Night was long and I can find no rest
3) Willie (also William)
4) French fleet
5) yon green island

Early, Early All in the Spring (Ur-Ballad)

1. It was early, early all in the spring,
   When my love Willie went to serve the King,
   The raging seas and wind blew high,
   Which parted me and my sailor boy.

2. The night is long and I can find no rest,
    The thoughts of my Willie runs in my breast,
    I'll search those green wood and valleys wide,
    Still hoping my true love to find.

3. Come make then for me a little boat
    For its on the ocean I mean to float,
    To view the French fleet as they pass by,
    And I will inquire for my sailor boy.

4. She had not sailed more then a day or too,
    When a French vessel came into view.
    "Oh Captain Captain tell me true
    Does my true love Willie sail on board with you?"

5. "What sort of clothes did your Willie wear,
    Or what colour was your true lover's hair?"
    "A short blue jacket all bound with green,
    And the colour of amber was my true love's hair."

6. Indeed, fair lady, he is not here,
    But he is drowned I greatly fear,
    On yon green Island as we passed by,
    We lost five more and your sailor boy.

7. She wrung her hands tore her hair,
    Just like a lady in deep despair,
    Her little boat against a rock did run,
    Saying, "What shall I do when my Willie's gone?"

8. I'll tell my dream to the hills high;
    And all the small birds as they fly,
    "Oh, happy, happy is the girl," she cried,
    "That has her true-love by her side."

9. She called for a pen and paper to write a song,
    She wrote it wide and she wrote it long,
    And at every letter she shed a tear,
    At every line she cried, "Willie dear."

10. Come all you seamen that sails along
    And all you boatmen that follow on.
    From the cabin boy to the main mast high,
    You must mourn in black for my sailor boy.

11. Oh drape my coffin with the deepest black,
    And the headstone right above my head and neck
    And on my breast place a turtle dove
    To tell the world that I died for love.

Stanza 3 also begins with the standard "Oh father, father, come build me a boat" not found in older Irish versions. It should be noted that all Irish versions do not begin with "Early, Early" (see: Colm O Lochlainn's 1939 version) but "Early, Early" is the main identifier for Oikotype A and the Irish versions.

* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 12 Jun 17 - 10:01 PM

Hi,

Here are my headnotes now for Sailor Boy: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/7a-the-sailor-boy-or-sweet-william.aspx I've put over 100 UK versions and over 120 versions from North America on my site so I'll be wrapping up this study soon. Since the main headnotes are long, I'd like to share two excerpts:

The broadsides represent four different oikotypes of Sailor Boy/Sweet William which correspond to my A to D print versions.

Oikotype A: Irish. Begins with "Early, early in the spring" and is represented by the Irish broadsides "Sailor Boy" by Goggins c.1770, also "A New Song call'd the Young Lady's Lamentation for the Loss of her True Love," printed by P. Brereton in Dublin. c.1867 and "The constant lover and her sailor boy" from Ballad Sheet Scrapbook I: part IV, from the Collection of Patrick Weston Joyce (1827- 1914) an Irish music collector; dated c. 1880 by chronology presented.. The opening two lines (and sometimes the first stanza) are also found in Early, Early in the Spring (Laws M1 Roud #152) whose antecedent is the late 17th century Seaman's Complaint for his Unkind Mistress, of Wapping. See those opening lines also in Croppy Boy, which is an adaptation. What need to be made clear is: The Seaman's Complaint is not part of Sailor Boy and only has the opening lines in common-- they are different ballads. Some recent song notes date The Sailor Boy back to "the bombardment of Cartagena, Colombia, during Admiral Vernon's 1740 expedition." This apparently is a reference to a text from Logan's Pedlar's Pack of 1869, The Disappointed Sailor, in which the ship's destination is Cartagena (1741)-- this text is related to Seaman's Complaint, a different ballad. The Sailor boy dates back to the early 1700s through John Gay's recreation. The "Early, Early" title, although an identifier of Irish versions, appears to have been originally English from an earlier unknown missing broadside.

Oikotype B: Scottish. Begins with "The sailing trade is a weary trade," and is represented by "Sailing Trade" printed by J. Morren, c.1800 in an Edinburgh chapbook. The opening also appears with changes such as, "A sailor's life is a weary life" which is similar to the opening of Oikotype D. Oikotype B has 10 stanzas and introduces the "color of amber" stanza which is common in many Sailor Boy versions from North America and is similar in text to the opening of the Appalachian folksong "Black is the Colour."

Oikotype C: English also Irish. Begins "Down by a crystal river side" and is represented by Ca, "The Maid's Lament for her Sailor Boy," a London broadside by J. Catnatch printer dated between 1813 and 1838 and Cb, "Sailor Boy" by London printer Pitts dated between 1819 and 1844. The opening stanza is reminiscent of the 2nd stanza of the 1686 broadside, "Constant Lady and the False-Hearted Squire." This English oikotype also has the older text used by John Gay in 1720 (Black Eyed Susan) and can therefore be considered older than A or B. This oikotype has the French ships found in the Irish A which A may have borrowed from C. It must be presumed that an early broadside of C is missing (c.1680s- 1720s) and text either from the broadside or its tradition was used by Gay for his "Black Eyed Susan." The fact that versions of C are found in America and that the versions were brought probably during the Colonial Period is further evidence of the antiquity of C which had been replaced by D in England by 1900.

Oikotype D: English. It begins similarly to B, "A sailor's life is a merry life" and is represented by the later broadside, "Sailor Boy and his Faithful Mary." Has the new stanza beginning, "Four-and-twenty sailors, in a row." The ships are the "Queen's ship(s)," the sailor is "sweet William" and he was last seen and presumed dead on the "green island." This represents a more recent (late 1800s- early 1900s) English tradition and is easily identified by its first line.

All four types can be compared for details, type of ship, jacket blue etc. An ur-ballad can be constructed for each oikotype. Although some traditional versions are mixed (more than one oikotype) most conform closely to the four basic broadside oikotypes. One other rare oikotype, found in tradition in North America, uses the "amber is the colour" stanza as an opening and is Oikotype E, which begins "Dark/Black is the Color." These oikotypes will be covered in more detail later.

* * * *

The Relationship with Died for Love
The text of G, "A Sailor's Trade is a Roving Life," succinctly shows the main relationship with Died for Love. The letter writing stanza, which is sometimes song writing stanza in Sailor Boy, is followed by the Died for Love ending stanza. After studying the broadside texts and comparing them to the traditional texts, one fact becomes clear: except for this single stanza about writing a song or letter (a ballad commonplace-- in this case it acts as a trigger stanza) the print versions have no stanzas in common with Died for Love and their extended family. Since many traditional versions of Sailor Boy share one or more stanzas with Died for Love, how can this be?

There are two theories-- the first (Theory A) requires a giant leap of faith while the second (Theory B) is simple. Perhaps both are contributors to the inclusion of the Died for Love stanzas in traditional versions of Sailor Boy.

Theory A suggests that both Died for Love, B (The Cruel Father), a ballad about an apprentice who is pressed into service the King and becomes a sailor boy, and Sailor Boy have a common broadside ancestry. Sailor Boy would be an "answer to" type of broadside that would be parallel or a variation of the same story. In The Cruel Father, his daughter's lover is pressed to sea aboard a man-of-war where he is killed by a cannonball. In the Sailor Boy her sailor boy is either pressed to sea or it's his trade-- she has her father build a boat and she searches for him hailing down (in some versions) a man-of-war vessel. It would be natural for the Sailor Boy as a companion ballad to appropriate the suicide and ending Died for Love stanzas.

Theory B is a simple logical explanation: the Died for Love ballads are similar in style, melody and theme to Sailor Boy. The basic theme is almost the same in both--a maid falls in love, her love leaves her. She searches for him, finds he's dead and kills herself. Traditional singers that knew the two ballads would blend them because of the common letter/song writing stanza. Notice in G (text above) "A Sailor's Trade is a Roving Life" the Died for Love ending follows the letter writing stanza held in common. This combination is most consistent in Butcher Boy (Died for Love, E). Printers kept printing the same stock broadsides-- not taking tradition into account. Although it seems odd that a version with the added Died for Love stanzas was never printed-- why change the old for the new (Maiden's Prayer).

The association of the two ballads by traditional singers from the common stanza became apparent when random Died for Love stanzas where added to Sailor Boy. One good example is one of the first published traditional versions, my W, which was sent by Margaret Harley to Lucy Broadwood. It was later published in Broadwood's 1893 English Country Songs:

W. "Sweet William." Words and tune, with notes from Margaret Harley, Bewdley.

1. O father, father, come build me a boat,
That on this wild ocean I may float,
And every ship that I chance to meet
I will enquire for my William sweet.

2 I had not sailed more than half an hour
Before I met with a man on board (man of war?)
"Kind captain, captain, come tell me true,
Is my sweet William on board with you?"

3 "Oh no, fine lady, he is not here,
That he is drowned most breaks my fear,
For the other night when the wind blew high
That's when you lost your sweet sailor boy."

4 I'll set me down, and I'll write a song,
I'll write it neat, and I'll write it long,
And at every word I will drop a tear,
And in every line I'll set my Willie dear.

5 I wish, I wish, but it's all in vain,
I wish I was a sweet maid again,
But a maid, a maid I never shall be
Till apples grow on an orange-tree.
For a maid, a maid I shall never be,
Till apples grow on an orange-tree.

In the next year Baring-Gould collected a version and sent it to Broadwood in a letter which pointed out that Broadwood's last stanza was from a different song!

* * * *

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 09 Jun 17 - 02:47 PM

Hi,

This is an excellent version of A, Irish from Australia:

It's The Lost Sailor by Simon McDonald from Norm O'Connor folklore collection online. McDonald lived almost all his life in Creswick Victoria, a small town close to Ballarat, and worked as a woodcutter and farm labourer. Many, such as 'The Lost Sailor,' were about the sea. This is an archaic version of A. He's an excellent singer. Listen: http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-216799528/listen

I'm not sure if the other Aussie versions stem from this. Does anyone know of other independent versions?

The Lost Sailor - collected from Simon McDonald, Creswick, Victoria in 1959.

[fiddle]

It was early, early all in the spring,
When my lad Jemmy went to serve the King,
With the main mast full and the topmast high,
That parted me and my sailor boy.

Oh get for me that little boat,
Over these wide oceans I may just float
To watch the French fleet as they sailed by,
While I inquire of my sailor boy.

Oh she was not far sailing on the deep
When a lofty French fleet she chanced to meet,
She did tell to me, "Oh you jovial crew
Does my love Jemmy sail on board with you?"

Indeed fair maiden he is not here,
For he is drowned, I likely fear,
It was on yonder island as we passed by,
It was there we lost of your sailor boy.

Oh she wrung her hands and she tore her hair,
Like a maid distracted all in deep despair,
Her little boat o'er the rocks she run
How can I live now my Jemmy's gone.

And all ye sailors come dress in black
Come all ye fair maids come dress in white
With the main mast full and the topmast high,
While I shall mourn for my sailor boy.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 07 Jun 17 - 05:34 PM

Hi,

I've started on UK and am up to about 1916:

    Sailor Boy- (Limerick) c.1770 Goggin broadside
    Sailing Trade (Edinburgh) 1800 J. Morren, chapbook
    The Sailor Boy- (London) 1810 Merry Songs, J Evans
    Sailor Boy- Tom Sweetman (Wex) c.1817 Kennedy
    Sailor Boy & his Faithful Mary- (Lon) c.1820 Pitts
    Sailor Boy- K. L. (London) 1862 Monthly Packet
    Young Lady's Lamentation- (Dub) 1867 P. Brereton
    Early, Early All in the Spring- Hollings(Lin) 1870
    My Love William- Sam Noble (Dundee) c.1875
    Sailing Trade- Mary Guthrie (Aber) 1876 Christie
    Sailor Boy- (Lon) 1891 Ashton; Real Sailor Songs
    Sweet William- Mrs. Harley (Worc) 1893 Broadwood
    Sailor's Life- Willie Mathieson (Aber) 1894 REC
    Sweet William- J. Woodrich (Dev) 1894 B. Gould
    A Sailor's Life- Henry Hills (Sus) 1899 Merrick
    Sweet William- T. Sprachlan (Som) 1903 Sharp MS
    A Sailor's Life- Jake Toms (Dorset) 1905 Hammond
    A Sailor's Life - R. Barratt (Dorset) 1905 Hammond
    A Sailor's Life- Mrs. Small (Sus) 1905 Broadwood
    Sailor Boy- Ann Hiles (Linc) 1905 Grainger
    Sweet William- Robert Slade (Dors) 1906 Hammond
    Fetch Me My Boat- Mrs. King (Hamp) 1906 Gardiner
    Sweet William- Job Read (Hamp) 1906 Gardiner
    Sailor Boy- Mr. Gordge (Som) 1906 Sharp MS
    Sailor Boy- J. W. Spence (Fyvie) c.1906 Greig D
    Sailin's a weary life- Mrs Greig(Aber)1906 Greig E
    Sweet William- William Bone (Hamp) 1907 Gardiner
    Sweet William- G. Baldwin (Hamp) 1907 Gardiner
    Sweet William- Mrs. Mundy (Hamp) 1907 Gardiner
    Down By Some River- Mr. Flint (Surrey) 1907 RVW
    As I Walked Forth- M. Mills (Hamp) 1907 Gardiner
    I'll Sit Me Down- P. Malone (Hamp) 1907 Gardiner
    Father Made Me a Boat- Jones (Hamp) 1907 Gardiner
    Sailing Trade- Robert Chree (Aber) 1907 Greig A
    Sailor Boy- Arthur Barron (Aber) c.1907 Greig F
    A Sailor's Life- J. Alexander (Aber) c.1907 Greig
    Early All in the Spring- Lane (Glou) 1908 Grainger
    Write a Little Song- George Say (Som) 1908 Sharp
    A Sailor's Life- James Lovell (Som) 1908 Sharp MS
    Sailor Boy- Annie Ritchie (Aber) 1908 Greig C
    Sailing Trade- Annie Shirer (Aber) 1908 Greig I
    Sailing Trade- Anon (Aber) c.1908 Greig J
    BrokenHearted Lover- Anderson (Ab) 1908 Greig K
    Young Sailor Boy- Mrs. Duncan (Aber) 1908 Greig L
    Jacket Blue- (Antrim) pre1909 Patrick Joyce
    Father, Build me a Boat- Mrs. Collinson (Wes) 1909
    Sailing Trade- Kate Mitchel (Aber) c.1909 Grieg B
    Young Lady's Lamentation- (Dub) 1909 broadside
    Early All in the Spring- Yeldman(Essex) 1911 Carey
    A Sea Song- Andrew Dobson (Surrey) 1912 Carey
    Sailor Boy- John Puffet (Glou) 1916 A. Williams
    My Boy Willie- Anon (Dublin) 1939 O Lochlainn

Not sure of many UK versions from 1916 to 1950, I assume Sharp's Sweet William (100 English Folk Songs) is a compilation. Any suggests of versions and/or texts would be helpful,

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 06 Jun 17 - 09:46 AM

TY Reinhard,

The info on Kennedy version online is : Peter Kennedy Collection
Sheila Gallagher, Middle Dere, Donegal 1953. Tape 1
http://sounds.bl.uk/World-and-traditional-music/Peter-Kennedy-Collection/025M-C0604X0523XX-0001V0#_
8. The Sailor Boy (further talk, build me a boat) English [2'26"].- 20142: F. 1.

* * * *

This is Greig A, from Bob Chree (b. 1852) dated c. 1860s since in the obit it says he learned his "sangs" as a child. To see the obit and bio info: http://www.bluegrassmessengers.com/sailing-trade--robert-chree-aber-1907-greig-a.aspx

A. THE SAILING TRADE- sung by "Bob" Chree of Milltown, Glenbuchat, learned in the 1860s.

The sailing trade is a weary life,
It's bereavit me o' my heart's delight.
It's left me here in tears to mourn,
Just waiting for my Willie's return.

It's where he's gone I cannot tell,
Nor in whose arms my love doth dwell,
But who enjoys him at this same time
Enjoys the fairest of all mankind.

The grass grows green where my love's been,
The little birds sing in ilka tree,
The nightingale in her cage doth sing
To welcome Willie in the spring.

She's caus-ed them to make a boat
That on the ocean she might float,
And view the French ships as they passed by.
And still enquire for her sailor boy.

She had not sail-ed long on the deep,
When a French ship she chanced to meet,
"Oh captain, captain, pray tell me true,
Is my true love on board with you?

"Amber is the colour of his hair,
His cheeks like roses, his skin so fair.
His lips like lilies all steeped in wine,
Ten thousand times they been joined to mine.

"It's your true love an' he is na here,
He is drownid in the depths. I fear,
It was just last night, a$ the wind blew high,
It was then we lost a fine sailor boy."

The sailors they were all dressed in black,
The sailors they were right mournfully,
With their silken screen on their topmast high,
The wind did blow with a pleasant gale.

This fair maid she went to her home,
She has called for paper, and she has penned this song,
At ilka word she did shed a tear,
And at ilka line cried, "Willie dear!"

As she was walking on the quay,
A row of sailors she chanced to see,
With their jackets blue and their troosers white,
Just mind her on her heart's delight.

She wrang her hands, she tore her hair,
Just like a lover in despair,
Oot owre a rock herself she's thrown,
"How could I live, and my darling gone?"

Thanks to Steve Gardham for providing a copy of Greig/Duncan. This is a traditional version of Oikotype B, Sailing Trade printed in Edinburgh around 1800.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Reinhard
Date: 06 Jun 17 - 12:20 AM

Roy Palmer has two lines that differ from your transcription. His first line is

Down by some murmuring riverside

and the last but one line

Telling the small birds, telling my grief

But looking at the manuscript he seemed to be wrong and you transcribed it correctly.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 05 Jun 17 - 11:50 PM

TY Reinhard, by the way Geoff there's a version of Sailor Boy on Kennedy's site- can't listen with my browser.

* * * *

This is one of the rare archaic UK versions of the Oikotype C. It's my transcription of Ralph Vaughan Williams Manuscript Collection (at British Library) (RVW2/1/71).

It's only the second version with "murmuring side" (the first being the 1824 Samuel Bunker from a whaling ship log):

Down By Some River- sung by Mr. Flint of Lyne, Surrey in 1907; taken down by R.V. Williams.

Down by some river's murmurin' side,
Where silver streams do gently glide
I heard a fair maid making her moan
"How can I live now my Jimmy's gone?"

O father fetch me a little boat,
That on the ocean I might float
And every ship I do see
I will enquire for my sailor boy.

She had not sailed long in the deep
Before some queen's ship she chanced to meet
"Come jovial sailors, come tell me true
If my young Jimmy sails along with you?"

"Oh no, young lady he is not here
For he is drownded I greatly fear,
For yonders island that we have sailed by
It was there we lost your Jimmy boy."

She wrung her hands she tore her hair
Much like some woman in despair,
Her boat up against some rock did run,
"How can I live now Jimmy's gone."

"I will go down to some shady grove,
There I'll go and make my woe,
Telling the small birds, telling them of my grief,
That they might afford me some such relief."

* * * *

It's scary that I can now read R.V. Williams MS scratches. The opening line is sketchy and Palmer wrote it out too: Folk Songs Collected by Ralph Vaughan Williams by ‎Roy Palmer- 1983 so if anyone has Palmer's transcript they can post changes.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: GeoffLawes
Date: 05 Jun 17 - 05:51 AM

Thank you Reinhard, here is a link to an article that I found about Freddy McKay written for Musical Traditions by Keith Summers and Peta Webb back in 1997. I presume that it is the same man.

http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/mckay.htm


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Reinhard
Date: 04 Jun 17 - 12:33 PM

Geoff Lawes asked a week ago: "If anyone knows the origins of Silver Dagger, Turtle Dove, which I think is modern, then I would like to know."

Silver Dagger, Turtle Dove was written by Freddy McKay. Ken Hall sang it on his and Peta Webb's album "As Close As Can Be". He wrote in the album notes:

I first met Belfast's Freddy McKay at the Islington Folk Club in the late 1970s where he was one of a whole bunch of marvellous performers. Freddy was a great raconteur with a natural comic talent and love of the ridiculous. The affection that he attracted from all who met him was testimony to a 'great fellah". Freddy encouraged me to learn some of his songs and I was greatly attracted to his comic parody Silver Dagger, Turtle Dove.


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Richie
Date: 03 Jun 17 - 04:03 PM

Yes Steve, I need to do the ur-ballad comparisons after the UK versions which I've started. As far as the Carters, no need to stress- sometimes you have to hit the nail on the head a few times before it goes in.

Re
dun
    dant

TY for the feedback, I'll be rewriting in the near future and will consider the "stress" next round.

Richie


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Subject: RE: Origins: Died for Love Sources: PART IV
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 03 Jun 17 - 10:21 AM

It would be interesting to see the 4 ur oikotypes side by side for comparison.

You've stressed the Carters as the main source 3 times. Is this necessary?


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